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Imidacloprid, sulfoxaflor and two experimental sulfoximine insecticides caused generally depressive symptoms in stick insects, characterized by stillness and weakness, while also variably inducing postural changes such as persistent ovipositor opening, leg flexion or extension and abdomen bending that could indicate excitation of certain neural circuits. We(More)
Stick insect middle leg (mesothoracic) motoneurons receive tonic excitatory input during front leg stepping on a treadmill. We studied the pharmacology of this excitatory input to the motoneurons during single-legged treadmill walking (in situ). During bath application of drugs restricted to the mesothoracic ganglion, activity in motoneurons contralateral(More)
We used patch-clamp recordings and fast optical Ca(2+) imaging to characterize an acetylcholine-induced current (I(ACh)) in leg motoneurons of the stick insect Carausius morosus. Our long-term goal is to better understand the synaptic and integrative properties of the leg sensory-motor system, which has served extremely successfully as a model to study(More)
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