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Local production of IL-17 is a significant factor in effective host defense against Gram-negative bacteria. However, the proximal events mediating IL-17 elaboration by T cells remain unclear. In this study, we show in vivo that intact Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in the lung is required for induction of both the p19 transcript of IL-23 and IL-17 protein(More)
A recombinant bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has been developed, which constitutively secretes interleukin (IL)-2. Groups of deer were immunized with either normal BCG (Pasteur 1173 P2 strain) or recombinant BCG (rBCG/IL-2) and their immune responses were monitored over 3 months. Animals gained weight over this period and showed no signs of adverse(More)
The host immune response is generally sufficient to contain Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. It does not, however, efficiently prevent subsequent infection with M. tuberculosis or provide sterilizing immunity. While the understanding of the immune response generated against this pathogen is incomplete, improvements have been achieved due to advances in(More)
IL-17 is a cytokine produced by T cells in response to IL-23. Recent data support a new subset of CD4 Th cells distinct from Th1 or Th2 cells that produce IL-17 and may contribute to inflammation. In this study, we demonstrate that, in naive mice, as well as during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, IL-17 production is primarily from gammadelta T cells(More)
Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a heterodimeric cytokine that shares IL-12 p40 but contains a unique p19 subunit similar to IL-12 p35. Previous studies indicate a greater importance for intact IL-12/23 p40 expression than IL-12 p35 for immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting a role for IL-23 in host defense. The effects of IL-23 on the outcome of(More)
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of an extended-release formulation of a classical antihistamine, brompheniramine, and a second-generation compound, loratadine, in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Subjects with symptoms of allergic rhinitis received(More)
Unlike intramuscular injection, gene gun delivery of DNA drives a strong type 2 response. In an effort to counter this, we have genetically fused the type 1 cytokines, IL-12 and IL-23, to the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from influenza APR/8/34, and delivered these DNA constructs to Balb/c mice. Gene gun delivery of the HA gene was able to induce antibody(More)
Cervine interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) was cloned and expressed using an Escherichia coli expression system pET-32. The expressed protein contained a 6 histidine purification tag and an 11 kDa thioredoxin fusion partner 5' to the IFN-gamma molecule. The ability of IFN-gamma to inhibit the killing of Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells by Semliki forest virus was(More)
Studies performed in several animal species have demonstrated that glomerulotubular balance is maintained throughout development despite the many changes that occur in the factors known to control it. In an attempt to understand the nature of this phenomenon we quantified the magnitude and described the profile of these changes in guinea pigs. The changes(More)