Etty Tika N Benveniste

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Apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, is the major type of cell death involved in normal development, regeneration, proliferation and pathologic degeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). The apoptotic process can be divided further into two pathways depending on the involvement of mitochondria and related biochemical cascades. The internal(More)
The ability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to establish latent infections in cells has received renewed attention owing to the failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy to eradicate HIV-1 in vivo. Despite much study, the molecular bases of HIV-1 latency and reactivation are incompletely understood. Research on HIV-1 latency would(More)
In the decade following their initial discovery, the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins have been studied for their potential use as immunomodulators in disease. SOCS proteins, especially SOCS1 and SOCS3, are expressed by immune cells and cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and have the potential to impact immune processes within the(More)
PURPOSE Gliomas are the most frequently occurring primary malignancies in the brain, and glioblastoma is the most aggressive of these tumors. Protein kinase CK2 is composed of two catalytic subunits (α and/or α') and two β regulatory subunits. CK2 suppresses apoptosis, promotes neoangiogenesis, and enhances activation of the JAK/STAT, NF-κB, PI3K/AKT,(More)
CD40 is expressed on various immune cells, including macrophages and microglia. Aberrant expression of CD40 is associated with autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Interaction of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) with the Gram-negative bacteria endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in the induction of an array(More)
The NF-kappaB family mediates immune and inflammatory responses. In many cancers, NF-kappaB is constitutively activated and induces the expression of genes that facilitate tumorigenesis. ING4 is a tumor suppressor that is absent or mutated in several cancers. Herein, we demonstrate that in human gliomas, NF-kappaB is constitutively activated, ING4(More)
Inflammatory events in the central nervous system (CNS) contribute to the disease process in a variety of neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and cerebral ischemia, and activated macrophages/microglia are central to this response. Immunological activation of these cells leads to the production of a wide(More)
It is unknown how dendritic cells (DCs) become specialized as mucosal DCs and maintain intestinal homeostasis. We report that a subset of bone marrow cells freshly isolated from C57BL/6 mice express the retinoic acid (RA)-synthesizing enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A2 (ALDH1a2) and are capable of providing RA to DC precursors in the bone(More)
The type I interferons (IFNs), IFN-alpha and IFN-beta, are cytokines that have antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities. Data are now emerging that suggest that type I IFNs are also important mediators of anti-inflammatory responses. These findings, largely driven by studies to explain the beneficial effects of IFN-beta in the treatment(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive dementing neurologic illness, and the most frequent cause of dementia in the elderly. Neuritic plaques are one of the main neuropathological findings in AD, and the major protein component is the beta-amyloid protein (A beta). Another striking feature of neuritic plaques is the presence of activated microglia,(More)