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The elimination of redundant computations and the moving of invariant computations out of loops are often done separately, with invariants moved outward loop by loop. We propose to do both at once and to move each expression directly to the entrance of the outermost loop in which it is invariant. This is done by solving a more general problem, i.e. the(More)
BACKGROUND The physiological function of the ubiquitous cellular prion protein, PrP(c), is still under debate. It was essentially studied in nervous system, but poorly investigated in epithelial cells. We previously reported that PrP(c) is targeted to cell-cell junctions of polarized epithelial cells, where it interacts with c-Src. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS We(More)
Zolpidem is a new, short-acting hypnotic of imidazopyridine structure which binds selectively to a subpopulation of receptors involved in the action of benzodiazepines [omega 1 (BZ1) sites of the gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors]. The present study investigated whether tolerance and physical dependence develop after repeated treatment with zolpidem as is(More)
The BZ1 (omega 1)-selective compound, zolpidem, is a clinically effective hypnotic drug with a pharmacological profile which differs from those of benzodiazepine anxiolytics and hypnotics. Zaleplon (CL 284,846) has recently been described as a hypnotic agent which also has BZ1 (omega 1) receptor selectivity. The pharmacological effects of zolpidem and(More)
The hypnotics, quazepam (a benzodiazepine), brotizolam (a thienotriazolodiazepine), zopiclone (a cyclopyrrolone) and zolpidem (an imidazopyridine) have a common ability to bind to the benzodiazepine recognition site (omega receptor) within the GABAA receptor. For this reason we compared their pharmacological profiles in mice. All compounds shared(More)
Defects in endosomal sorting have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Endosomal traffic is largely controlled by phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, a phosphoinositide synthesized primarily by lipid kinase Vps34. Here we show that phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate is selectively deficient in brain tissue from humans with Alzheimer's disease and Alzheimer's(More)
Some forms of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies result from oral infection. We have thus analyzed the early mechanisms that could account for an uptake of infectious prion particles by enterocytes, the major cell population of the intestinal epithelium. Human Caco-2/TC7 enterocytes cultured on microporous filters were incubated with different prion(More)
Enterocytes are highly polarized cells that transfer nutrients across the intestinal epithelium from the apical to the basolateral pole. Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a secretory protein that plays a key role in the transepithelial transport of dietary fatty acids as triacylglycerol. The evaluation of the control of apoB traffic by lipids is therefore of(More)
Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of neuromuscular transmission associated with antibodies (Ab) against acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Autoantibody production is a T-cell-dependent phenomenon perhaps caused by aberrant immunoregulation. So far, a possible role for immunoregulatory molecules has not been investigated in the pathogenesis of MG.(More)
The phospholipid-binding annexin A2 (AnxA2) is known to play a role in the regulation of membrane and actin dynamics, in particular in the endocytic pathway. The protein is present on early endosomes, where it regulates membrane traffic, including the biogenesis of multivesicular transport intermediates destined for late endosomes. AnxA2 membrane(More)