Ethan J. Anderson

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High dietary fat intake leads to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and this represents a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated in the disease process, but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Here we show that in skeletal muscle of both rodents and(More)
The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) play critical roles in the pathogenesis of diabetes and obesity. The MAPKs are inactivated by MAPK phosphatases (MKPs) either in the cytosol or nucleus. Here we show that mice lacking the nuclear-localized MKP, MKP-1 (mkp-1(-/-)), have enhanced Erk, p38 MAPK and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) activities in(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in a number of skeletal muscle pathologies, most notably aging-induced atrophy and loss of type II myofibers. Although oxygen-derived free radicals are thought to be a primary cause of mitochondrial dysfunction, the underlying factors governing mitochondrial superoxide production in different skeletal myofiber types(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine if exercise (Ex) protects hearts from arrhythmias induced by glutathione oxidation or ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two experimental groups: sedentary controls (Sed) or short-term Ex (10 days of treadmill running). Twenty-four hours after the last session, hearts were(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to determine the impact of diabetes on oxidant balance and mitochondrial metabolism of carbohydrate- and lipid-based substrates in myocardium of type 2 diabetic patients. BACKGROUND Heart failure represents a major cause of death among diabetic patients. It has been proposed that derangements in cardiac metabolism and(More)
Statins, the widely prescribed cholesterol-lowering drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, cause adverse skeletal muscle side effects ranging from fatigue to fatal rhabdomyolysis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of simvastatin on mitochondrial respiration, oxidative stress, and cell death in differentiated primary human(More)
The heart is a highly oxidative organ in which cardiomyocyte turnover is virtually absent, making it particularly vulnerable to accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (LPP) formed as a result of oxidative damage. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are the most common electrophiles formed during lipid peroxidation and lead to the formation of both(More)
Metformin is a widely prescribed drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes, although no cellular mechanism of action has been established. To determine whether in vivo metformin treatment alters mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle, respiratory O(2) flux and H(2)O(2) emission were measured in saponin-permeabilized myofibers from lean and obese (fa/fa)(More)
Abstract Studies in experimental models suggest that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve metabolic and anti-inflammatory/antioxidant capacity of the heart, although the mechanisms are unclear and translational evidence is lacking. In this study, patients ingested a moderately high dose of n-3 PUFAs (3.4 g/day eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and(More)
BACKGROUND Onset of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a common and costly complication of heart surgery despite major improvements in surgical technique and quality of patient care. The etiology of POAF, and the ability of clinicians to identify and therapeutically target high-risk patients, remains elusive. METHODS AND RESULTS Myocardial tissue(More)