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Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion has been associated with cognitive decline in aging and Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, the pattern of cerebral blood flow in mild cognitive impairment has emerged as a predictive marker for the progression into Alzheimer's disease. The reconstruction of a pathological condition in animal models is a suitable approach to the(More)
The aging of the central nervous system and the development of incapacitating neurological diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) are generally associated with a wide range of histological and pathophysiological changes eventually leading to a compromised cognitive status. Although the diverse triggers of the neurodegenerative processes and their(More)
Though cerebral white matter injury is a frequently described phenomenon in aging and dementia, the cause of white matter lesions has not been conclusively determined. Since the lesions are often associated with cerebrovascular risk factors, ischemia emerges as a potential condition for the development of white matter injury. In the present study, we(More)
Cerebral capillaries represent a major interface between the general circulation and the central nervous system and are responsible for sufficient and selective nutrient transport to the brain. Structural damage or dysfunctioning carrier systems of such an active barrier leads to compromised nutrient trafficking. Subsequently, a decreased nutrient(More)
Activated T-lymphocytes can migrate through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and are able to invade the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, we investigated whether disruption of the BBB leads to enhanced T-cell migration into the CNS. Amyloid-beta peptide 25-35 (A beta) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) were administered into the right(More)
The brain, as an intensely active organ, is highly dependent on a sufficient nutrient and oxygen availability in order to reach its optimal working capacity. It is well known that the vital supply of energy substrates is provided by the circulatory system, which splits up into a fine, terminal capillary network in target tissues. These capillaries are(More)
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a mild ischemic condition associated with a cognitive decline which is prevalent during senescence or Alzheimer's disease. Its experimental animal model compromises permanent occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO) in rats, which results in neuronal damage and microglia activation. Various mechanisms, including(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are often subject to vascular dysfunction besides their specific CNS pathology, which warrants further examination of the interaction between vascular factors and the development of dementia. The association of decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) or hypertension with AD has been a target of growing interest. Parallel with(More)
Alpha-tocopherol, a potent antioxidant, has been widely investigated as a dietary supplement with which to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis, and has recently been considered as a potential supplement to moderate oxidative neuronal damage in Alzheimer's disease patients. Since alpha-tocopherol appears beneficial in vascular and neurodegenerative disorders,(More)
Chronic hypertension during aging is a serious threat to the cerebral vasculature. The larger brain arteries can react to hypertension with an abnormal wall thickening, a loss of elasticity and a narrowed lumen. However, little is known about the hypertension-induced alterations of cerebral capillaries. The present study describes ultrastructural(More)