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BACKGROUND Hyperuricemia and markers of inflammation are correlated with the risk for hypertension. Whether hyperuricemia has any impact on the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) and hypertension is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS We analyzed cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2010, using ordinary(More)
The ability of the human immune system to respond to vaccination declines with age. We identified an age-associated defect in T cell receptor (TCR)-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in naive CD4(+) T cells, whereas other signals, such as ζ chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP70) and phospholipase C-γ1 phosphorylation,(More)
The concept of 'equipoise', or the 'uncertainty principle', has been represented as a central ethical principle, and holds that a subject may be enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) only if there is true uncertainty about which of the trial arms is most likely to benefit the patient. We sought to estimate the frequency with which equipoise(More)
The present case-control study was conducted to investigate the relationship between smoking and rheumatoid arthritis, and to investigate formally the interaction between sex, smoking, and risk for developing rheumatoid arthritis. The study was performed in the Central District of Finland. Cases were patients with rheumatoid arthritis and the control group(More)
INTRODUCTION The Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ) and the SF-36 PF-10, among other instruments, yield sensitive and valid Disability (Physical Function) endpoints. Modern techniques, such as Item Response Theory (IRT), now enable development of more precise instruments using improved items. The NIH Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement(More)
INTRODUCTION Our purpose was to test the hypothesis that hyperuricemia is associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) among a relatively healthy population, and that the extent of calcification is directly proportional to the serum uric acid (sUA) concentration. METHODS Data from 2,498 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young(More)
BACKGROUND In the past few decades, medically related data collection saw a huge increase, referred to as big data. These huge datasets bring challenges in storage, processing, and analysis. In clinical medicine, big data is expected to play an important role in identifying causality of patient symptoms, in predicting hazards of disease incidence or(More)
OBJECTIVE Patient dropout (attrition) can bias and threaten validity of databank-based studies. Although there are several databanks of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in operation, this phenomenon has not been well studied. METHODS We studied the attrition patterns of patients with RA in 11 long-running databanks where patients were followed using semiannual(More)
Observational databanks have inherent strengths and shortcomings. As in randomized controlled trials, poor design of these databanks can either exaggerate or reduce estimates of drug effectiveness and can limit generalizability. This commentary highlights selected aspects of study design, data collection and statistical analysis that can help overcome many(More)