Eswar Krishnan

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The ability of the human immune system to respond to vaccination declines with age. We identified an age-associated defect in T cell receptor (TCR)-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in naive CD4(+) T cells, whereas other signals, such as ζ chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP70) and phospholipase C-γ1 phosphorylation,(More)
OBJECTIVES We examined hospital- and patient-related factors associated with discharge against medical advice (termed self-discharge) after emergency admission to acute-care hospitals. METHODS We analyzed data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project using logistic regression models to assess the relationship(More)
The concept of 'equipoise', or the 'uncertainty principle', has been represented as a central ethical principle, and holds that a subject may be enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) only if there is true uncertainty about which of the trial arms is most likely to benefit the patient. We sought to estimate the frequency with which equipoise(More)
OBJECTIVE The Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) disability index (DI) has been commonly used in rheumatology to quantify functional disability in patient groups, but current general population values of this index are not available. This study was undertaken to establish normative values for the HAQ DI in a general population and to analyze its(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the prevalence of cervical spine subluxations and predictive factors for atlantoaxial subluxations (including anterior atlantoaxial subluxation and atlantoaxial impaction, i.e., vertical subluxation) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who were treated early and continuously with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs for 8-13(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the ambulatory care utilization by patients with gouty arthritis (gout) in the United States using a nationally representative sample. METHODS A cross-sectional survey design based on the ambulatory care data from the 2002 US National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey was used to(More)
OBJECTIVE Despite the recent doubling of the incidence of gout among women and its substantial prevalence particularly in the aging female population, the risk factors for gout among women remain unknown. We undertook this study to evaluate purported risk factors for incident gout among women and to compare them with those among men. METHODS Using(More)
The National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS; trademarked by the National Institutes of Health) Roadmap initiative (available at is a cooperative research program designed to develop, evaluate, and standardize item banks to measure patient-reported outcomes across different medical(More)
OBJECTIVE We examined the association between serum uric acid (SUA) level and the frequency, risk, and cost of gout flares among the elderly. METHODS Data were extracted from the Integrated Healthcare Information Services claims database (1999-2005). Patients were included if they had gout, were aged 65 years and older and had both medical and pharmacy(More)
OBJECTIVE Cigarette smoking is correlated with other risk factors for gout such as adiposity and alcohol intake. The goal of this study was to study the direction and magnitude of association between cigarette smoking and risk for gout. METHODS We analysed 54-year follow-up data (1948-2002) for 2279 men and 2785 women who were gout-free at their first(More)