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Here is a book that is addressed to a rather small audience—researchers on child development in the first couple of years—which is nevertheless accessible to, and I believe important for, a much larger readership. It is a serious attempt to apply to psychology a recent scientific development variously known as chaos theory, nonlinear systems dynamics, and(More)
The overall goal of this target article is to demonstrate a mechanism for an embodied cognition. The particular vehicle is a much-studied, but still widely debated phenomenon seen in 7-12 month-old-infants. In Piaget's classic "A-not-B error," infants who have successfully uncovered a toy at location "A" continue to reach to that location even after they(More)
The A-not-B error is one of the most robust and highly studied phenomena in developmental psychology. The traditional Piagetian interpretation is that the error reflects the immaturity of infants' understanding of objects as permanent entities. More recently, the error has been interpreted in terms of changes in representation, in memory, in spatial(More)
The onset of directed reaching demarks the emergence of a qualitatively new skill. In this study we asked how intentional reaching arises from infants' ongoing, intrinsic movement dynamics, and how first reaches become successively adapted to the task. We observed 4 infants weekly in a standard reaching task and identified the week of first arm-extended(More)
When infants first learn to reach at about 4 months, their hand paths are jerky and tortuous, but their reaches become smoother and straighter over the first year. Here the authors consider the role of the underlying limb dynamics, which scale with movement speed, on the development of trajectory control. The authors observed 4 infants weekly and then(More)
When prelocomotor infants are supported on a motorized treadmill, they perform well-coordinated, alternating stepping movements that are kinematically similar to upright bipedal locomotion. This behavior appeared to be a component of independent walking that could not be recognized without the facilitating context of the treadmill. To understand the(More)
Recently, Smith, Thelen, and colleagues proposed a dynamic systems account of the Piagetian "A-not-B" error in which infants' errors result from general processes that make goal-directed actions to remembered locations. Based on this account, the A-not-B error should be a general phenomenon, observable in different tasks and at different points in(More)
Patterns of interlimb coordination associated with infant reaching fluctuate frequently over developmental time. This study investigated whether these fluctuations are related to coordination tendencies. Interlimb patterns were studied in reaching and nonreaching movements in 4 infants, which were followed through their 1st year. Each week, reaching and(More)
Development is about creating something more from something less, for example, a walking and talking toddler from a helpless infant. One current theoretical framework views the developmental process as a change within a complex dynamic system. Development is seen as the emergent product of many decentralized and local interactions that occur in real time.(More)
One important component in the understanding of the control of limb movements is the way in which the central nervous system accounts for joint forces and torques that may be generated not only by muscle actions but by gravity and by passive reactions related to the movements of limb segments. In this study, we asked how the neuromotor system of young(More)