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From the late 1980s, a storm surrounding the wisdom, ethics, and economics of human gene patents has been brewing. The various winds of concern in this storm touched on the impact of gene patents on basic and clinical research, on health care delivery, and on the ability of public health care systems to provide equal access when faced with costly patented(More)
States Four decades after the U.S. Supreme Court first held that an artificially created bacterium had the potential to be patented in the United States,1 biotechnology patents continue to generate controversy, particularly human gene patents used in diagnostic testing. The persistence of the debate can be attributed to particular business models for(More)
The biotechnology industry has become firmly established over the past twenty years and gene patents have played an important part in this phenomenon. However, concerns have been raised over the patentability of human genetic material, through public protests and international statements, but to little effect. Here we discuss some of these concerns, the(More)