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Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is a major threat for performance and health in athletes. OTS is caused by high levels of (sport-specific) stress in combination with too little regeneration, which causes performance decrements, fatigue and possibly other symptoms. Although there is general consensus about the causes and consequences, many different(More)
This paper integrates the cumulative stress hypothesis with the mismatch hypothesis, taking into account individual differences in sensitivity to programming. According to the cumulative stress hypothesis, individuals are more likely to suffer from disease as adversity accumulates. According to the mismatch hypothesis, individuals are more likely to suffer(More)
BACKGROUND The three-way interaction between the functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene linked promoter region, the val66met polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene, and childhood adversity in the prediction of depression in children, reported by Kaufman and colleagues in 2006, has only been confirmed in adult samples.(More)
BACKGROUND Extensive recruitment effort at baseline increases representativeness of study populations by decreasing non-response and associated bias. First, it is not known to what extent increased attrition occurs during subsequent measurement waves among subjects who were hard-to-recruit at baseline and what characteristics the hard-to-recruit dropouts(More)
  • N Stavrakakis, A J Oldehinkel, +4 authors P de Jonge
  • 2013
OBJECTIVE Physical activity is inversely associated with depression in adolescents, but the overall associations are fairly weak, suggesting individual differences in the strength of the associations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether plasticity genes modify the reciprocal prospective associations between physical activity and depressive(More)
Positive affect has been implicated in the phenomenological experience of various psychiatric disorders, vulnerability to develop psychopathology and overall socio-emotional functioning. However, developmental influences that may contribute to positive affect have been understudied. Here, we studied youths' 5-HTTLPR genotype and rearing environment (degree(More)
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the developmental programming part of the theory of biological sensitivity to context using family environmental factors and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Specifically, we investigated whether perceived parenting (Rejection and Emotional Warmth) and socio-economic status (SES)(More)
The purpose was to study how functional polymorphisms in the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF val66met) and the serotonin transporter gene linked promotor region (5-HTTLPR) interact with childhood adversities in predicting Effortful Control. Effortful Control refers to the ability to regulate behavior in a goal-directed manner and is an(More)
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether a length polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) was associated with approach related traits in adolescents. Data were used from TRAILS (TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey), a population based cohort of Dutch adolescents. Sensation seeking, assessed with personality(More)
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether overreached athletes show psychomotor slowness after a period of high load training. Fourteen well-trained cyclists (10 male, 4 female, mean age 25.3 [SD = 4.1] years, mean maximal oxygen consumption 65.5 [SD = 8.1] ml/kg.min) performed a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer, filled(More)