Esther M. Ellis

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Major dengue epidemics have been observed in the Indian subcontinent since the 1980s and have occurred with increased hospitalizations and mortality. In 2011, the first major epidemic of dengue occurred in Lahore, the second largest city in Pakistan, and resulted in 21,685 confirmed cases and 350 deaths. To investigate the possible viral causes for the(More)
Dengue virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and infects at least 100 million people every year. Progressive urbanization in Asia and South-Central America and the geographic expansion of Aedes mosquito habitats have accelerated the global spread of dengue, resulting in a continuously increasing number of cases. A cost-effective, safe vaccine conferring(More)
The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic in the Americas is of significant public health importance due to the lack of effective control and prevention strategies, severe disease morbidity among susceptible populations, and potential for persistent arthralgia and long-term impaired physical functionality. Using surveillance data of suspected CHIKV cases, we(More)
Dengue appears to be endemic in Africa with a number of reported outbreaks. In February 2013, several individuals with dengue-like illnesses and negative malaria blood smears were identified in Mombasa, Kenya. Dengue was laboratory confirmed and an investigation was conducted to estimate the magnitude of local transmission including a serologic survey to(More)
An accurate measure of infectious dengue virus in human and mosquito tissues is critical to fully understand virus-host relationships, disease severity, viral fitness, and pathogenesis. In recent years, RNA copy number measured by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction has been used to measure dengue virus concentration in vitro and in vivo. In(More)
BACKGROUND In June 2014, the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) emerged in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), a location where tourists comprise the majority of the population during peak season (January-April). Limited information is available concerning visitors' CHIKV awareness and prevention measures. METHODS We surveyed a convenience sample of(More)
Pregnant women living in or traveling to areas with local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission are at risk for Zika virus infection, which can lead to severe fetal and infant brain abnormalities and microcephaly (1). In February 2016, CDC recommended 1) routine testing for Zika virus infection of asymptomatic pregnant women living in areas with ongoing(More)
After the 2014-2015 outbreak of chikungunya virus in the US Virgin Islands, we compared the prevalence of persistent arthralgia among case-patients and controls. Prevalence was higher in case-patients than controls 6 and 12 months after disease onset. Continued vaccine research to prevent acute illness and long-term sequelae is essential.
BACKGROUND Melioidosis results from infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei and is associated with case-fatality rates up to 40%. Early diagnosis and treatment with appropriate antimicrobials can improve survival rates. Fatal and nonfatal melioidosis cases were identified in Puerto Rico in 2010 and 2012, respectively, which prompted contact investigations(More)
BACKGROUND Dengue is a leading cause of morbidity throughout the tropics; however, accurate population-based estimates of mortality rates are not available. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We established the Enhanced Fatal Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance System (EFASS) to estimate dengue mortality rates in Puerto Rico. Healthcare professionals submitted(More)