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Prolonged depolarization has been used as a model of adaptive changes in the expression of various proteins, such as ion channels and neurotransmitter biosynthetic enzymes, in response to increased trans-synaptic activity in the nervous system. In depolarized PC12 cells, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels increased severalfold (Kilbourne, E. J., and(More)
Stress triggers important adaptive responses that enable an organism to cope with a changing environment. However, when prolonged or repeated, stress can be extremely harmful. The release of catecholamines is a key initial event in responses to stressors and is followed by an increase in the expression of genes that encode catecholamine-synthesizing(More)
Exposure to severe stress leads to development of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in at-risk individuals. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is associated with resilience or improved recovery. Therefore exogenous administration to the brain has therapeutic potential although peripheral administration can trigger(More)
Sympathetic ganglia are the major contributors to the stress-elicited rise in circulating norepinephrine, enkephalins, and neuropeptide Y. Here we examined the effect of immobilization stress and treatment with ACTH and glucocorticoids on messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), preproneuropeptide Y(More)
Repeated stress triggers a wide range of adaptive changes in the central nervous system including the elevation of serotonin (5-HT) metabolism and an increased susceptibility to affective disorders. To begin to examine whether these changes are mediated by alterations in gene expression for tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT(More)
Classically, upon hypothalamic stimulation, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is released from the pituitary and acts on melanocortin 2 receptors (MC2R) in the adrenal cortex, stimulating glucocorticoid synthesis and release. Our earlier studies suggested that ACTH might have a direct effect on sympathetic ganglia. To analyze further the involvement of(More)
AIMS Epinephrine (EPI) synthesizing enzyme phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT, EC is primarily localized in the adrenal medulla (AM). We have recently described existence of the PNMT gene expression in cardiac atria and ventricles and in sympathetic ganglia of adult rats and mice. The aim of the present work was to study regulation of(More)
GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the formation of tetrahydrobiopterin, the cofactor for catecholamine, indolamine and nitric oxide biosynthesis. The effect of glucocorticoids on GTPCH gene expression was examined by direct infusion of cortisol to rats and by incubation of PC12 cells with glucocorticoids. Northern blot analysis(More)
Estrogen is likely involved in the gender specific differences in coping with stress. Activation of catecholamine (CA) biosynthetic enzyme gene expression in central and peripheral CA systems plays a key role in response to stress and in regulation of the cardiovascular system. Here we examined whether estradiol can modulate response of(More)
PTSD is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder and many patients do not respond sufficiently to current treatments. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is suggested to provide resilience to the development of PTSD and co-morbid depression. Injections of NPY to the rodent brain are anxiolytic. Recently we showed that intranasal delivery of NPY to rats before or(More)