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Inference about future climate change impacts typically relies on one of three approaches: manipulative experiments, historical comparisons (broadly defined to include monitoring the response to ambient climate fluctuations using repeat sampling of plots, dendroecology, and paleoecology techniques), and space-for-time substitutions derived from sampling(More)
We present numerical simulations investigating the interaction of AGN jets with galaxy clusters , for the first time taking into account the dynamic nature of the cluster gas and detailed cluster physics. The simulations successfully reproduce the observed morphologies of radio sources in clusters. We find that cluster inhomogeneities and large scale flows(More)
Recent climate changes have increased the primary productivity of many Arctic and subarctic regions. Erected shrub has been shown to increase in abundance over the last decades in northern regions in response to warmer climate. At the same time, caribou herds are declining throughout the circumboreal regions. Based on observation of heavy browsing on shrubs(More)
The expansion of shrub vegetation in Arctic and sub-Arctic environments observed in the past decades can have significant effects on northern ecosystems. There is a need for efficient tools to monitor those changes, not only in terms of the spatial coverage of shrubs, but also their vertical growth. The objective of the current paper is to evaluate the(More)
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