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Various magnetic resonance (MR) techniques are used to study the pathological evolution of demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). However, few studies have validated MR derived measurements with histopathology. Here, we determine the correlation of myelin water imaging, an MR measure of myelin content, with quantitative histopathologic(More)
Myelin water imaging (MWI) promises to be invaluable in understanding neurological diseases like MS. However, a limitation of MWI is signal to noise ratio. Recently, a number of investigators have performed MWI at field strengths higher than 1.5 T. Our goal was to determine if myelin water imaging at increased SNR, arising from the use of a small bore 7 T(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the pathologic basis of areas not exhibiting signal of the short-T2 component of the T2 relaxation distribution in MS, as studied in formalin-fixed brain. BACKGROUND A myelin-specific MRI signal would be of great importance in assessing demyelination in patients with MS. Evidence indicates that the short-T2 (10 to 50 millisecond)(More)
"Dirty-appearing white matter" (DAWM) in multiple sclerosis (MS) is defined as a region(s) with ill-defined borders of intermediate signal intensity between that of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and that of plaque on T(2)-weighted and proton density imaging. To delineate the histopathology of DAWM, four formalin-fixed cerebral hemisphere slices of(More)
BACKGROUND The pathological basis of diffusely abnormal white matter (DAWM) in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been elucidated in detail, but may be an important element in disability and clinical progression. METHODS Fifty-three subjects with MS were examined with T₁, multi-echo T₂ and magnetization transfer (MT). Twenty-three samples of formalin-fixed(More)
The mechanism of action of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the alleviation of tremor in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurological disorders is unknown. Moreover, whether the trauma accompanying this surgery is responsible for the induction of new MS plaques is controversial. Here we report the first description of the post-mortem imaging and pathologic(More)
Although multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions have been studied extensively using histology and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), little is known about diffusely abnormal white matter (DAWM). Diffusely abnormal white matter, regions with reduced mild MRI hyperintensity and ill-defined boundaries, show reduced myelin water fraction, and decreased Luxol fast blue(More)
The choroid plexus (CP) provides a barrier to entry of toxic molecules from the blood into the brain and transports vital molecules into the cerebrospinal fluid. While a great deal is known about CP physiology, relatively little is known about its immunology. Here, we show immunohistochemical data that help define the role of the CP in innate and adaptive(More)
The measurement of the Epstein-Barr viral load in peripheral blood has been recognised as an important way of monitoring the response to treatment in patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related malignancies. In particular, EBV load in transplant recipients can be used as a predictive parameter for Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder (PTLD). The(More)
BACKGROUND Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is recognised as one of the causative agents for most cases of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Elevated levels of EBV DNA are known to be associated with the onset of PTLD, but little information is available regarding how EBV loads change with time in asymptomatic transplant recipients following(More)