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Stressful stimuli evoke complex endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses that are extremely variable and specific depending on the type and nature of the stressors. We first provide a short overview of physiology, biochemistry, and molecular genetics of sympatho-adrenomedullary, sympatho-neural, and brain catecholaminergic systems. Important processes(More)
Stress triggers important adaptive responses that enable an organism to cope with a changing environment. However, when prolonged or repeated, stress can be extremely harmful. The release of catecholamines is a key initial event in responses to stressors and is followed by an increase in the expression of genes that encode catecholamine-synthesizing(More)
BACKGROUND The locus coeruleus (LC), a target for CRH neurons, is critically involved in responses to stress. Various physiological stresses increase norepinephrine turnover, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzymatic activity, protein and mRNA levels in LC cell bodies and terminals; however, the effect of stress on other enzymes involved in norepinephrine(More)
Effects of single or repeated insulin or 2-deoxy-D-glucose administration on adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein levels were examined in rats. Insulin produced hypoglycemia and an elevation in plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels. A significant increase (3-5-fold) in tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels was found at 5 h, decreasing to near(More)
Exposure to severe stress leads to development of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in at-risk individuals. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is associated with resilience or improved recovery. Therefore exogenous administration to the brain has therapeutic potential although peripheral administration can trigger(More)
Prolonged depolarization has been used as a model of adaptive changes in the expression of various proteins, such as ion channels and neurotransmitter biosynthetic enzymes, in response to increased trans-synaptic activity in the nervous system. In depolarized PC12 cells, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels increased severalfold (Kilbourne, E. J., and(More)
Stress stimulates the sympathoadrenal system, causing activation of the catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes. Here we examine the changes of gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; EC 1.14.16.2), the initial enzyme of catecholamine biosynthesis, with stress. A single immobilization of rats led to a large transient elevation in TH mRNA and a small(More)
Sympathetic ganglia are the major contributors to the stress-elicited rise in circulating norepinephrine, enkephalins, and neuropeptide Y. Here we examined the effect of immobilization stress and treatment with ACTH and glucocorticoids on messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), preproneuropeptide Y(More)
Nicotine, a major component of tobacco smoke, stimulates catecholamine secretion and activates catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) in adrenal medullary cells. We investigated the effect of long term treatment with nicotine on TH and DBH gene expression in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.(More)