Esther L. Sabban

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Stressful stimuli evoke complex endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses that are extremely variable and specific depending on the type and nature of the stressors. We first provide a short overview of physiology, biochemistry, and molecular genetics of sympatho-adrenomedullary, sympatho-neural, and brain catecholaminergic systems. Important processes(More)
Nicotine, a major component of tobacco smoke, stimulates catecholamine secretion and activates catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) in adrenal medullary cells. We investigated the effect of long term treatment with nicotine on TH and DBH gene expression in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.(More)
Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase expression by antidepressant treatments was investigated in the locus coeruleus (LC), the major noradrenergic nucleus in brain. Rats were treated chronically with various antidepressants, and tyrosine hydroxylase levels were measured in the LC by immunoblot analysis. Representatives of all major classes of antidepressant(More)
Stress triggers important adaptive responses that enable an organism to cope with a changing environment. However, when prolonged or repeated, stress can be extremely harmful. The release of catecholamines is a key initial event in responses to stressors and is followed by an increase in the expression of genes that encode catecholamine-synthesizing(More)
Exposure to severe stress leads to development of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in at-risk individuals. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is associated with resilience or improved recovery. Therefore exogenous administration to the brain has therapeutic potential although peripheral administration can trigger(More)
BACKGROUND The locus coeruleus (LC), a target for CRH neurons, is critically involved in responses to stress. Various physiological stresses increase norepinephrine turnover, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzymatic activity, protein and mRNA levels in LC cell bodies and terminals; however, the effect of stress on other enzymes involved in norepinephrine(More)
The relationship between nicotine and stress is complex and paradoxical. Although people claim they smoke because it relaxes them, nicotine can trigger some of the effects observed with stress, including the release and synthesis of the catecholamines and their biosynthetic enzymes. This study examined one aspect of this confusing relationship between(More)
Dysregulation of the central noradrenergic system is a core feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we examined molecular changes in locus coeruleus (LC) triggered by single-prolonged stress (SPS) PTSD model at a time when behavioral symptoms are manifested, and the effect of early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y (NPY).(More)
Nicotine treatment increases intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)](i), stimulates catecholamine release, and elevates gene expression for the catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH). However, the type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediating these events is unclear. The nAChR(More)
Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) is the enzyme that synthesizes epinephrine from norepinephrine. The aim of this study was to determine potential PNMT gene expression in the cardiac atria and ventricles of adult rats and to examine whether the gene expression of this enzyme is affected by immobilization stress. PNMT mRNA levels were detected in(More)