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Stressful stimuli evoke complex endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses that are extremely variable and specific depending on the type and nature of the stressors. We first provide a short overview of physiology, biochemistry, and molecular genetics of sympatho-adrenomedullary, sympatho-neural, and brain catecholaminergic systems. Important processes(More)
Stress triggers important adaptive responses that enable an organism to cope with a changing environment. However, when prolonged or repeated, stress can be extremely harmful. The release of catecholamines is a key initial event in responses to stressors and is followed by an increase in the expression of genes that encode catecholamine-synthesizing(More)
Exposure to severe stress leads to development of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in at-risk individuals. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is associated with resilience or improved recovery. Therefore exogenous administration to the brain has therapeutic potential although peripheral administration can trigger(More)
Long-term changes in catecholamine levels and expression of their biosynthetic enzymes are associated with several stress-related disorders such as elevated plasma norepinephrine in posttraumatic stress disorder and increased postmortem tyrosine hydroxylase in the locus coeruleus with major depression. Stress elevates tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in(More)
Sympathetic ganglia are the major contributors to the stress-elicited rise in circulating norepinephrine, enkephalins, and neuropeptide Y. Here we examined the effect of immobilization stress and treatment with ACTH and glucocorticoids on messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), preproneuropeptide Y(More)
Prolonged depolarization has been used as a model of adaptive changes in the expression of various proteins, such as ion channels and neurotransmitter biosynthetic enzymes, in response to increased trans-synaptic activity in the nervous system. In depolarized PC12 cells, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels increased severalfold (Kilbourne, E. J., and(More)
AIMS Epinephrine (EPI) synthesizing enzyme phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT, EC is primarily localized in the adrenal medulla (AM). We have recently described existence of the PNMT gene expression in cardiac atria and ventricles and in sympathetic ganglia of adult rats and mice. The aim of the present work was to study regulation of(More)
BACKGROUND The locus coeruleus (LC), a target for CRH neurons, is critically involved in responses to stress. Various physiological stresses increase norepinephrine turnover, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzymatic activity, protein and mRNA levels in LC cell bodies and terminals; however, the effect of stress on other enzymes involved in norepinephrine(More)
BACKGROUND Stress triggers adaptive and maladaptive changes in the central nervous system, including activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and can trigger mood disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. We examined the effect of immobilization stress (IMO) on gene expression of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate-limiting enzyme in(More)