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Sympathetic ganglia are the major contributors to the stress-elicited rise in circulating norepinephrine, enkephalins, and neuropeptide Y. Here we examined the effect of immobilization stress and treatment with ACTH and glucocorticoids on messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), preproneuropeptide Y(More)
Exposure to severe stress leads to development of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in at-risk individuals. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is associated with resilience or improved recovery. Therefore exogenous administration to the brain has therapeutic potential although peripheral administration can trigger(More)
BACKGROUND Stress triggers adaptive and maladaptive changes in the central nervous system, including activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and can trigger mood disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. We examined the effect of immobilization stress (IMO) on gene expression of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate-limiting enzyme in(More)
Prolonged depolarization has been used as a model of adaptive changes in the expression of various proteins, such as ion channels and neurotransmitter biosynthetic enzymes, in response to increased trans-synaptic activity in the nervous system. In depolarized PC12 cells, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels increased severalfold (Kilbourne, E. J., and(More)
BACKGROUND The locus coeruleus (LC), a target for CRH neurons, is critically involved in responses to stress. Various physiological stresses increase norepinephrine turnover, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzymatic activity, protein and mRNA levels in LC cell bodies and terminals; however, the effect of stress on other enzymes involved in norepinephrine(More)
Classically, upon hypothalamic stimulation, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is released from the pituitary and acts on melanocortin 2 receptors (MC2R) in the adrenal cortex, stimulating glucocorticoid synthesis and release. Our earlier studies suggested that ACTH might have a direct effect on sympathetic ganglia. To analyze further the involvement of(More)
AIMS Epinephrine (EPI) synthesizing enzyme phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT, EC is primarily localized in the adrenal medulla (AM). We have recently described existence of the PNMT gene expression in cardiac atria and ventricles and in sympathetic ganglia of adult rats and mice. The aim of the present work was to study regulation of(More)
Estrogen is likely involved in the gender specific differences in coping with stress. Activation of catecholamine (CA) biosynthetic enzyme gene expression in central and peripheral CA systems plays a key role in response to stress and in regulation of the cardiovascular system. Here we examined whether estradiol can modulate response of(More)
GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the formation of tetrahydrobiopterin, the cofactor for catecholamine, indolamine and nitric oxide biosynthesis. The effect of glucocorticoids on GTPCH gene expression was examined by direct infusion of cortisol to rats and by incubation of PC12 cells with glucocorticoids. Northern blot analysis(More)
Brain melanocortinergic systems and specifically melanocortin receptor four (MC4R) are implicated in modulation of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior induced by mild or moderate stress. Here we examine whether blockage of central MC4Rs with HS014 before severe traumatic stress may protect against development of anxiety and depression co-morbid with(More)