Esther J. Witsch

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Under physiological conditions, cells receive fate-determining signals from their tissue surroundings, primarily in the form of polypeptide growth factors. Integration of these extracellular signals underlies tissue homeostasis. Although departure from homeostasis and tumor initiation are instigated by oncogenic mutations rather than by growth factors, the(More)
CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells could mature freshly isolated human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) in a superantigen-driven culture in a similar way to recombinant interleukin-3 (IL-3). Mature PDC expressed significantly higher levels of inducible costimulator ligand (ICOS-L), but similar levels of CD80 and CD86, when compared to mature monocyte-derived DC (moDC).(More)
With newly generated ICOS-ligand (ICOS-L)-specific monoclonal antibodies we determined that human Langerhans cells in situ express similar levels of ICOS-L, CD80, and CD86, compared to immature dendritic cells (DC) derived from monocytes in vitro. Maturation of DC strongly up-regulated CD80 and CD86 but did not significantly change ICOS-L levels. On(More)
OBJECTIVE We aimed to clarify whether fingolimod has direct effects on antigen-presenting cells in multiple sclerosis patients. METHODS Frequency and phenotype of directly ex vivo dendritic cells and monocytes were analyzed in 43 individuals, including fingolimod-treated and untreated multiple sclerosis patients as well as healthy subjects. These cells(More)
Tolerance to dsDNA is achieved through editing of Ig receptors that react with dsDNA. Nevertheless, some B cells with anti-dsDNA receptors escape editing and migrate to the spleen. Certain anti-dsDNA B cells that are recovered as hybridomas from the spleens of anti-dsDNA H chain transgenic mice also bind an additional, Golgi-associated antigen. B cells that(More)
The chronic graft-versus-host (cGvH) reaction is a model of induced lupus caused by alloreactive CD4(+) T cells from a Bm-12 mouse in a C57BL/6 recipient. We used this cGvH reaction in C57BL/6 anti-DNA H chain transgenic mice, 56R/B6, to understand the structure, specificity, and origin of the induced autoantibodies (auto-Abs). We found anti-DNA Abs that(More)
Most mature B lymphocytes express one BCR L chain, kappa or lambda, but recent work has shown that there are exceptions in that some B lymphocytes express both kappa and lambda and some even bear two different kappa L chains. Using the anti-DNA H chain-transgenic mouse, 56R, we find that B cells with pre-existing autoreactivity are especially subject to L(More)
The erbb-2 gene receptor is often over-expressed in human cancer and its overexpression is accompanied by worse prognosis. Targeting erbb-2 gene with antibodies is an effective approach to curtail the progression of erbb-2 gene-expressing cancer types. Two monoclonal antibodies, L-26 and N-12, previously generated in our laboratory, have shown effective(More)
T helper 17 (TH17) cells represent a discrete TH cell subset instrumental in the immune response to extracellular bacteria and fungi. However, TH17 cells are considered to be detrimentally involved in autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). In contrast to TH17 cells, regulatory T (Treg) cells were shown to be pivotal in the maintenance of(More)
In multiple sclerosis (MS), the immune cell attack leads to axonal injury as a major cause for neurological disability. Here, we report a novel role of the cell adhesion molecule L1 in the crosstalk between the immune and nervous systems. L1 was found to be expressed by CNS axons of MS patients and human T cells. In MOG35–55-induced murine experimental(More)