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KDR/flk-1 is one of two receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor, a potent angiogenic peptide. KDR/flk-1 is an early marker for endothelial cell progenitors, and its expression is restricted to endothelial cells in vivo. To investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating expression of KDR/flk-1, we cloned and characterized the promoter of the human(More)
Most cellular interactions essential for the development of an immune response involve the membrane glycoproteins encoded in the major histocompatibility gene complex. The products of the I region, the class II histocompatibility molecules (Ia molecules), are essential for accessory cells such as macrophages to present polypeptide antigens to helper T(More)
A biosynthetic antibody binding site, which incorporated the variable domains of anti-digoxin monoclonal antibody 26-10 in a single polypeptide chain (Mr = 26,354), was produced in Escherichia coli by protein engineering. This variable region fragment (Fv) analogue comprised the 26-10 heavy- and light-chain variable regions (VH and VL) connected by a(More)
Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease is completely reduced by treatment with mercaptoethanol in 8 M urea to-yield a randomIy coiled poIypeptide chain containing eight cysteine residues.‘-) Under optimal condit.ions of polypeptide concentration and pH, essent~inlly complete reformation of the disulfide bonds of the native enzyme occurs in the presence of molecular(More)
Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) have been used as antioxidants to prevent apoptosis in lymphocytes, neurons, and vascular endothelial cells. We report here that PDTC and NAC induce apoptosis in rat and human smooth muscle cells. In rat aortic smooth muscle cells, PDTC induced cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and DNA(More)
To examine the role of angiotensin II in the maintenance of blood pressure and the control of aldosterone secretion in man, eight normal subjects were studied on a tilt table in sodium replete and sodium depleted states prior to and subsequent to the intravenous infusion of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI). In both the sodium replete or(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) potently stimulates angiogenesis, whereas TNF-alpha has both pro- and anti-angiogenic activity. By measuring thymidine uptake, we found that TNF-alpha blocked a 2.3-fold increase in DNA synthesis induced by VEGF in human endothelial cells. To explore the possibility that the two interact to regulate endothelial cell(More)
Recently, the availability of a number of specific inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system has made it possible to address certain critical questions concerning the role of angiotensin II in physiologic homeostasis and in a number of pathologic states. These studies indicate that angiotensin II does not have an obligatory role in blood pressure(More)
Although several cytokines and growth factors have been shown to regulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, little is known about how VEGF may regulate growth factors that have known mitogenic and chemotactic actions on mesenchymal cells (which are involved in the maturation of the angiogenic process). We investigated the effect of VEGF(More)