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Digesta samples from the ovine rumen and pure ruminal bacteria were incubated with linoleic acid (LA) in deuterium oxide-containing buffer to investigate the mechanisms of the formation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs). Rumenic acid (RA; cis-9,trans-11-18:2), trans-9,trans-11-18:2, and trans-10,cis-12-18:2 were the major CLA intermediates formed from LA(More)
Dietary cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is generally thought to be beneficial for human health. Fish oil added to ruminant diets increases the CLA concentration of milk and meat, an increase thought to arise from alterations in ruminal biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids. To investigate the mechanism for this effect, in vitro(More)
A survey of 30 representative strains of human gram-positive intestinal bacteria indicated that Roseburia species were among the most active in metabolizing linoleic acid (cis-9,cis-12-18:2). Different Roseburia spp. formed either vaccenic acid (trans-11-18:1) or a 10-hydroxy-18:1; these compounds are precursors of the health-promoting conjugated linoleic(More)
Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (UPEC) can colonize the vagina and cause infections within the entire urogenital tract, including those associated with urinary tract devices. Lactobacilli typically dominate the vaginal microbiota in healthy women, and studies have shown that they can inhibit UPEC growth and vaginal colonization. However, little is(More)
We sequenced 16S rRNA genes from the vaginal swab contents of a postmenopausal woman with asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Sequences from Atopobium vaginae were the most commonly detected. In a survey of 35 other postmenopausal women, this organism was detected in 44% with BV but not in any subjects deemed healthy.
Faecal bacteria from four human donors and six species of human intestinal bacteria known to metabolize linoleic acid (LA) were incubated with LA in deuterium oxide-enriched medium to investigate the mechanisms of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid (VA) formation. The main CLA products in faecal suspensions, rumenic acid (cis-9,trans-11-CLA;(More)
The cellulolytic bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 adheres tightly to cellulose, but the molecular biology underpinning this process is not well characterized. Subtractive enrichment procedures were used to isolate mutants of R. albus 8 that are defective in adhesion to cellulose. Adhesion of the mutant strains was reduced 50% compared to that observed with(More)
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been shown to improve human health. They are derived from the microbial conversion of dietary linoleic acid (cis-9,cis-12-18 : 2 (LA)) in the rumen. An investigation was undertaken to determine the role of ruminal ciliate protozoa v. bacteria in the formation of CLA and its precursor in animal tissues, vaccenic acid(More)
We report for the first time the cloning and characterisation of a protozoal enzyme involved in plant cell wall polysaccharide degradation. A cDNA library was constructed from the ruminal protozoan Polyplastron multivesiculatum and a stable clone expressing xylanase activity was isolated. The encoded enzyme belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 11, and(More)
Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens is the most active bacterial species in the biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the rumen. It needs to remove the unsaturated bonds in order to detoxify the PUFA to enable the growth of the bacterium. Here, we investigated the response of cell membrane-associated proteins in B. fibrisolvens to growth in the(More)