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Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and(More)
The Flavivirus is a genus of RNA viruses that includes multiple long known human, animal, and zoonotic pathogens such as Dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, or Japanese encephalitis virus, as well as other less known viruses that represent potential threats for human and animal health such as Usutu or Zika viruses. Flavivirus replication is(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne flavivirus, which main natural hosts are birds but it also infects equines and humans, among other mammals. As in the case of other plus-stranded RNA viruses, WNV replication is associated to intracellular membrane rearrangements. Based on results obtained with a variety of viruses, different cellular(More)
West Nile virus (WNV), a neurovirulent mosquito-transmissible zoonotic virus, has caused recent outbreaks in Europe, including Serbia from August until October 2012. Although humans can be infected, birds are the main natural WNV reservoir. To assess WNV circulation in northern Serbia, 133 wild birds were investigated. These comprised resident and migratory(More)
West Nile virus (WNV), the most widely distributed flavivirus worldwide, has lately reemerged in Europe, causing worrisome outbreaks in humans and horses. Serological analysis by enzyme-linked immunoassay and plaque reduction neutralization test showed for the first time in Serbia that 12% of 349 horses presented specific neutralizing WNV antibodies, which(More)
Usutu virus (USUV) is an African mosquito-borne flavivirus closely related to West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus, which host range includes mainly mosquitoes and birds, although infections in humans have been also documented, thus warning about USUV as a potential health threat. Circulation of USUV in Africa was documented more than 50 years(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a serious health problem in developing countries and is also increasingly reported in industrialized regions. HEV is considered a zoonotic agent and strains isolated from swine and human sources are genetically similar. Thus, HEV is of increasing importance to both public and animal health. The aim of the(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) is a worldwide distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus that naturally cycles between birds and mosquitoes, although it can infect multiple vertebrate hosts including horses and humans. This virus is responsible for recurrent epidemics of febrile illness and encephalitis, and has recently become a global concern. WNV requires to transit(More)
Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) evolved from coxsackie B virus serotype 5 (CVB5) in the recent past, crossing the species barrier from humans to pigs. Here, SVDV isolates from early and recent outbreaks have been compared for their capacity to utilize the progenitor virus receptors coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and decay-accelerating factor (DAF;(More)
The N-terminal region of VP1 of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is highly antigenic in swine, despite its internal location in the capsid. Here we show that antibodies to this region can block infection and that allowing the virus to attach to cells increases this blockage significantly. The results indicate that upon binding to the cell, SVDV capsid(More)