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Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and(More)
Animal enteroviruses shed in the feces of infected animals are likely environmental contaminants and thus can be used as indicators of animal fecal pollution. Previous work has demonstrated that bovine enterovirus (BEV) present in bovine feces contaminates waters adjacent to cattle herds and that BEV-like sequences are also present in shellfish and in deer(More)
Heparan sulphate (HS) has been found to serve as receptor for initial cell binding of numerous viruses. Different glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including heparin and HS, were analysed for their ability to bind swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), a picornavirus with close homology to human coxsackie B5 virus. Binding of SVDV was established by(More)
The N-terminal region of VP1 of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is highly antigenic in swine, despite its internal location in the capsid. Here we show that antibodies to this region can block infection and that allowing the virus to attach to cells increases this blockage significantly. The results indicate that upon binding to the cell, SVDV capsid(More)
The Flavivirus is a genus of RNA viruses that includes multiple long known human, animal, and zoonotic pathogens such as Dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, or Japanese encephalitis virus, as well as other less known viruses that represent potential threats for human and animal health such as Usutu or Zika viruses. Flavivirus replication is(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne flavivirus, which main natural hosts are birds but it also infects equines and humans, among other mammals. As in the case of other plus-stranded RNA viruses, WNV replication is associated to intracellular membrane rearrangements. Based on results obtained with a variety of viruses, different cellular(More)
Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is the aetiological agent of a highly contagious viral disease of pigs, whose symptoms are indistinguishable from those caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The gene coding for the capsid protein precursor of SVDV (P1) from a recent spanish isolate (SPA/1/'93) was cloned and expressed in bacteria, and the(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for outbreaks of febrile illness and meningoencephalitis. The replication of WNV takes place on virus-modified membranes from the endoplasmic reticulum of the host cell, and virions acquire their envelope by budding into this organelle. Consistent with this view, the(More)
The soluble (Gs) and membrane-bound (Gm) forms of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) attachment protein were purified by immunoaffinity chromatography from cultures of HEp-2 cells infected with vaccinia virus recombinants expressing either protein. Sucrose gradient centrifugation indicated that Gs, which is secreted into the culture medium, remains(More)
West Nile virus (WNV), a neurovirulent mosquito-transmissible zoonotic virus, has caused recent outbreaks in Europe, including Serbia from August until October 2012. Although humans can be infected, birds are the main natural WNV reservoir. To assess WNV circulation in northern Serbia, 133 wild birds were investigated. These comprised resident and migratory(More)