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Mammalian cells harbor three highly homologous and widely expressed members of the ras family (H-ras, N-ras, and K-ras), but it remains unclear whether they play specific or overlapping cellular roles. To gain insight into such functional roles, here we generated and analyzed H-ras null mutant mice, which were then also bred with N-ras knockout animals to(More)
Both prolactin (PRL) and estrogen (E2) are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of mammary neoplasia, but the mechanisms by which these hormones interact to exert their effects in breast cancer cells are not well understood. We show here that PRL is able to activate the unliganded estrogen receptor (ER). In breast cancer cells, PRL activates a(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress represents an early pathological event in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ATF4 is a key ER stress transcription factor that plays a role in both adaptation to stress and the activation of apoptosis. Here we investigated the contribution of ATF4 to ALS. ATF4 deficiency reduced the rate of birth of SOD1(G86R) transgenic(More)
The mammalian sos1 and sos2 genes encode highly homologous members of the Son-of-sevenless family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors. They are ubiquitously expressed and play key roles in transmission of signals initiated by surface protein tyrosine kinases that are transduced into the cell through the action of membrane-associated Ras proteins. Recent(More)
The DLG-MAGUK subfamily of proteins plays a role on the recycling and clustering of glutamate receptors (GLUR) at the postsynaptic density. discs-large1 (dlg) is the only DLG-MAGUK gene in Drosophila and originates two main products, DLGA and DLGS97 which differ by the presence of an L27 domain. Combining electrophysiology, immunostaining and genetic(More)
During axon targeting, a stereotyped pattern of connectivity is achieved by the integration of intrinsic genetic programs and the response to extrinsic long and short-range directional cues. How this coordination occurs is the subject of intense study. Transcription factors play a central role due to their ability to regulate the expression of multiple(More)
Two human hSos1 isoforms (Isf I and Isf II; Rojas et al., Oncogene 12, 2291-2300, 1996) defined by the presence of a distinct 15 amino acid stretch in one of them, were compared biologically and biochemically using representative NIH3T3 transfectants overexpressing either one. We showed that hSos1-Isf II is significantly more effective than hSos1-Isf I to(More)
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