Esteban Gonzàlez Burchard

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Metformin is among the most widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) plays a role in the hepatic uptake of metformin, but its role in the therapeutic effects of the drug, which involve activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is unknown. Recent studies have shown that human OCT1 is highly(More)
A debate has arisen regarding the validity of racial/ethnic categories for biomedical and genetic research. Some claim 'no biological basis for race' while others advocate a 'race-neutral' approach, using genetic clustering rather than self-identified ethnicity for human genetic categorization. We provide an epidemiologic perspective on the issue of human(More)
Existing methods to ascertain small sets of markers for the identification of human population structure require prior knowledge of individual ancestry. Based on Principal Components Analysis (PCA), and recent results in theoretical computer science, we present a novel algorithm that, applied on genomewide data, selects small subsets of SNPs (PCA-correlated(More)
Methotrexate (MTX) is used in patients with malignant and autoimmune diseases. This drug is primarily excreted unchanged in the urine, and its net excretion occurs via active secretory and reabsorptive processes. We characterized the interaction of MTX with human organic-anion transporting polypeptide transporter (OATP) 1A2, which is expressed in tissues(More)
Recent studies have used dense markers to examine the human genome in ancestrally homogeneous populations for hallmarks of selection. No genomewide studies have focused on recently admixed groups--populations that have experienced admixing among continentally divided ancestral populations within the past 200-500 years. New World admixed populations are(More)
MOTIVATION It is becoming increasingly evident that the analysis of genotype data from recently admixed populations is providing important insights into medical genetics and population history. Such analyses have been used to identify novel disease loci, to understand recombination rate variation and to detect recent selection events. The utility of such(More)
1170 n engl j med 348;12 www.nejm.org march 20, 2003 From the Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Ill. (R.S.C.); the Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina School of Public Health, Chapel Hill (J.S.K.); and the Department of Biological Anthropology, Oxford University, Oxford,(More)
U.S. populations are genetically admixed, but surprisingly little empirical data exists documenting the impact of such heterogeneity on type I and type II error in genetic-association studies of unrelated individuals. By applying several complementary analytical techniques, we characterize genetic background heterogeneity among 810 self-identified African(More)
Genetic association studies in admixed populations may be biased if individual ancestry varies within the population and the phenotype of interest is associated with ancestry. However, recently admixed populations also offer potential benefits in association studies since markers informative for ancestry may be in linkage disequilibrium across large(More)
In the past decade, researchers have dramatically improved our understanding of the genetic basis of complex chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and type 2 diabetes, through more than 1,000 genome-wide association studies (GWAS). These scan the genomes of thousands of people for known genetic variants, to find out which are associated with a(More)