Espero Kim Fifer

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In overdose the analgesic/antipyretic acetaminophen (APAP) is hepatotoxic. Toxicity is mediated by initial hepatic metabolism to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). After low doses NAPQI is efficiently detoxified by GSH. However, in overdose GSH is depleted, NAPQI covalently binds to proteins as APAP adducts, and oxygen/nitrogen stress occurs. Toxicity(More)
The aminoalkylindole agonists JWH-018 and JWH-073 are contained in "K2/SPICE" products sold as "legal marijuana". Previous human metabolic studies have identified (ω)-hydroxyl and (ω)-carboxyl metabolites as biomarkers that are indicative of product use. However, other primary metabolites exhibiting similar chromatographic properties and mass spectra are(More)
In Part 2 of this review, a critical examination of the pertinent scientific literature is undertaken in order to assess the interaction risk that popular dietary supplements may pose when taken concomitantly with conventional medications. Botanicals most likely to produce clinically important herb-drug interactions are those whose phytochemicals act as(More)
The butyric acid derivative, 2-(4-morpholynl) ethyl butyrate hydrochloride (MEB), has been reported to induce antigen-specific T cell unresponsiveness and to block T cell-mediated graft-versus-host disease. As a potential therapeutic agent, it was important to determine the effects of MEB on other cells that contribute to immunopathology. Accordingly, we(More)
Compounds with the capacity to induce antigen-specific unresponsiveness in CD4(+) T cells can in some clinical situations be more beneficial than general immune suppressants. Newly synthesized ester, ester/amide, and amide derivatives of butyrate with the capacity to induce antigen-specific T cell unresponsiveness in vivo and in vitro were tested here. The(More)
Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) is a common and potentially fatal complication following bone marrow transplantation. This study was initiated to test whether MEB [n-butyrate 2-(4-morpholinyl) ethyl butyrate hydrochloride], a derivative of the G1 blocker butyric acid, could specifically inactivate the alloantigen-specific T cells that mediate GVHD. MEB was(More)
1-Nitropyrene, the predominant nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in diesel exhaust, is a mutagen and tumorigen. 1,6-Dinitropyrene is present in diesel exhaust in much smaller quantities than 1-nitropyrene, but is much more mutagenic and carcinogenic. In an attempt to understand this difference in biological potencies, we have compared the extent of(More)
1-Nitropyrene is an environmental mutagen and carcinogen which undergoes both oxidative and reductive metabolism. We have previously shown that nitroreduction to N-hydroxy-1-aminopyrene leads to the formation of arylamine--DNA adducts. In the present study, we have investigated the oxidative metabolism of 1-nitropyrene and the subsequent binding of(More)
The distribution, covalent binding and metabolism of radioactive 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) were examined following its oral administration to conventional and germ-free male Wistar rats. With both groups of animals, the liver, kidney, bladder, adipose tissue and gastrointestinal tract had the highest specific radioactivity. However, the maximum concentration of(More)
Protein kinase B (Akt) activation is well known for its protective effects against apoptosis. However, the role of Akt in regulation of necrosis is unknown. This study was designed to test whether Akt activation protects against nephrotoxicant-induced injury and death in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC). Exposure of primary cultures of RPTC to the(More)