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Insulin and the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) may directly affect the development of the nervous system. NGF, IGF-II, and insulin's effects on neurite formation and neuronal survival were studied in peripheral ganglion cell cultures from chick embryos. Neurite outgrowth was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner by insulin and IGF-II in sympathetic cell(More)
We presented evidence previously that decreasing the glycosylation state of the Kv1.1 potassium channel modified its gating by a combined surface potential and a cooperative subunit interaction mechanism and these effects modified simulated action potentials. Here we continued to test the hypothesis that glycosylation affects channel function in a(More)
Highly purified sodium channel protein from the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, was reconstituted into liposomes and incorporated into planar bilayers made from neutral phospholipids dissolved in decane. The purest sodium channel preparations consisted of only the large, 260-kD tetrodotoxin (TTX)-binding polypeptide. For all preparations,(More)
Sodium channels from human cortex were fused into planar lipid bilayers in the presence of batrachotoxin, and their single channel properties examined. Single channel slope conductance averaged 26 ps; tetrodotoxin block of the channels was voltage dependent with a K1/2 at 0 mV of 51 nM. The channel was asymmetrically selective for sodium over potassium. The(More)
Satellite glia cells (SGCs), within the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), surround the somata of most sensory neurons. SGCs have been shown to interact with sensory neurons and appear to be involved in the processing of afferent information. We found that in rat DRG various N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) subunits were expressed in SGCs in intact ganglia and(More)
BACKGROUND Neuronal excitability is in part determined by Ca2+ availability that is controlled by regulatory mechanisms of cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt). Alteration of any of those mechanisms by volatile anesthetics (VAs) may lead to a change in presynaptic transmission and postsynaptic excitability. Using a human neuroblastoma cell line, the effects of(More)
The functional role of brain insulin and insulinlike growth factor (IGF) receptors is being sought. Recently it has been found that these ligands are members of a newly identified family of neuritogenic polypeptides. We studied the relationship between 125I-insulin and 125I-IGF binding and their capacity to enhance neurite formation in cultured human(More)
The identification of biologically important and chemically well-defined substances that can promote axon and dendrite formation would improve present understanding of the development of the nervous system. Physiological concentrations of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) reversibly enhanced neurite outgrowth (NTO) in human neuroblastoma(More)
Until recently, nerve growth factor could be considered the only neurotrophic factor with an established physiological role. We discuss the emerging evidence indicating that the insulinlike factors may constitute a family of related neurotrophic proteins, and the observations suggesting that the receptor for the phorbol ester tumor promoters is closely(More)
Proliferation of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) has been identified in both normal and injured adult mammalian spinal cord. Yet the signaling mechanisms underlying the regulation of adult spinal cord NSPCs proliferation and commitment toward a neuronal lineage remain undefined. In this study, the role of three growth factor-mediated(More)