Espen J. Walker

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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced neovasculature is immature and leaky. We tested if coexpression of angiopoietin-1 (ANG1) with VEGF improves blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and VEGF neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects using a permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) model. Adult CD-1 mice were injected with 2 ×(More)
OBJECTIVE Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The underlying mechanisms are not clear. No animal model for adult bAVM is available for mechanistic exploration. Patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2 (HHT2) with activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1; ACVRL1) mutations have a higher(More)
Hippocampal neuronal death following transient global ischemia in the mouse takes days to occur, providing a potential timeframe for therapeutic intervention. Since matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) enhances inflammation and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) promotes apoptosis in ischemia, we hypothesized that they are involved in neuronal(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is elevated in human brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM). We have developed a bAVM model in the adult mouse by focal Alk1 gene deletion and human VEGF stimulation. We hypothesized that once the abnormal vasculature has been established, tonic VEGF stimulation is necessary to(More)
Vascular imaging is crucial in the clinical diagnosis and management of cerebrovascular diseases, such as brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs). Animal models are necessary for studying the etiopathology and potential therapies of cerebrovascular diseases. Imaging the vasculature in large animals is relatively easy. However, developing vessel imaging(More)
White matter (WM) injury after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) in rat is associated with disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We hypothesized that WM injury as seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would correlate with regions of increased MMP activity. MRI was performed 3 days after BCAO(More)
Oligodendrocyte (OL) death is important in focal cerebral ischemia. TIMP-3 promotes apoptosis in ischemic neurons by inhibiting proteolysis of TNF-α superfamily of death receptors. Since OLs undergo apoptosis during ischemia, we hypothesized that TIMP-3 contributes to OL death. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in Timp-3 knockout (KO) and(More)
BACKGROUND Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) represent a high risk for hemorrhagic stroke, leading to significant neurological morbidity and mortality in young adults. The etiopathogenesis of bAVM remains unclear. Research progress has been hampered by the lack of animal models. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) patients with(More)
OBJECTIVE Vessels in brain arteriovenous malformations are prone to rupture. The underlying pathogenesis is not clear. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2 patients with activin receptor-like kinase 1 (Alk1) mutation have a higher incidence of brain arteriovenous malformation than the general population. We tested the hypothesis that vascular(More)
Transient global ischemia causes delayed white matter injury to the brain with oligodendrocyte (OLG) death and myelin breakdown. There is increasing evidence that hypoxia may be involved in several diseases of the white matter, including multiple sclerosis, vascular dementia, and ischemia. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are increased in rat and mouse(More)