Espen J. Walker

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OBJECTIVE Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The underlying mechanisms are not clear. No animal model for adult bAVM is available for mechanistic exploration. Patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2 (HHT2) with activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1; ACVRL1) mutations have a higher(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Oligodendrocyte (OL) death is important in focal cerebral ischemia. TIMP-3 promotes apoptosis in ischemic neurons by inhibiting proteolysis of TNF-α superfamily of death receptors. Since OLs undergo apoptosis during ischemia, we hypothesized that TIMP-3 contributes to OL death. METHODS Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was(More)
Vascular imaging is crucial in the clinical diagnosis and management of cerebrovascular diseases, such as brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs). Animal models are necessary for studying the etiopathology and potential therapies of cerebrovascular diseases. Imaging the vasculature in large animals is relatively easy. However, developing vessel imaging(More)
Hippocampal neuronal death following transient global ischemia in the mouse takes days to occur, providing a potential timeframe for therapeutic intervention. Since matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) enhances inflammation and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) promotes apoptosis in ischemia, we hypothesized that they are involved in neuronal(More)
Transient global ischemia causes delayed white matter injury to the brain with oligodendrocyte (OLG) death and myelin breakdown. There is increasing evidence that hypoxia may be involved in several diseases of the white matter, including multiple sclerosis, vascular dementia, and ischemia. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are increased in rat and mouse(More)
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Vascular imaging is crucial in the clinical diagnosis and management of cerebrovascular diseases, such as brain(More)
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