Espen Benjaminsen

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A remarkable increase in female to male ratio of multiple sclerosis (MS) is recognised in high incidence areas. Norway is a high-risk area for MS, spanning latitudes 58-71 °N. We studied whether the sex ratio has changed over time and whether it differs by clinical phenotype or by latitude. Population-based epidemiological data and data from the Norwegian(More)
A month of birth effect on multiple sclerosis (MS) risk has been reported from different countries. Recent critics have suggested that this finding is caused by confounding and that adequately adjusting for year and place of birth would markedly reduce this effect. All inhabitants in Norway are registered in the Norwegian Population Registry (Statistics(More)
BACKGROUND The risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) increases with increasing latitude. Taking into consideration that Norway has a large latitude range, a south-to-north gradient would be expected. However, previous studies have reported an uneven distribution of the disease in Norway, with a relatively low prevalence in the most northern parts of the country.(More)
Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with unknown aetiology, and is one of few diseases, including some allergic and autoimmune diseases, 1 that have been associated with higher socioeconomic status (SES). For MS, early studies observed a higher disease risk among professional workers than in(More)
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