Esnat D. Chirwa

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BACKGROUND Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem among adolescents. This study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with Grade 8 girls' experience and boys' perpetration of IPV in South Africa. METHODS Participants were interviewed using interviewer-administered questionnaires about IPV, childhood violence,(More)
BACKGROUND Interventions to prevent rape perpetration must be designed to address its drivers. This paper seeks to extend understanding of drivers of single and multiple perpetrator rape (referred to here as SPR and MPR respectively) and the relationships between socio-economic status, childhood trauma, peer pressure, other masculine behaviours and rape. (More)
BACKGROUND Different structural and non-structural models have been used to describe human growth patterns. However, few studies have compared the fitness of these models in an African transitioning population. AIM To find model(s) that best describe the growth pattern from birth to early childhood using mixed effect modelling. SUBJECTS AND METHODS The(More)
BACKGROUND Urban black South African women have a high prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity patterns of a cohort of middle-aged urban-dwelling black African women and to determine if physical activity is associated with anthropometric measures and metabolic(More)
BACKGROUND Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts health and education. There are few research studies available in Pakistan, or South Asia. We describe the prevalence of peer violence, associations, and pathways between socio-economic status, school performance, gender attitudes and violence at home. METHODS 1752 children were(More)
Comparison of changes over time of a continuous response variable between treatment groups is often of main interest in clinical trials. When the distributional properties of the continuous response variable are not regular enough, or when the response is discrete, nonparametric techniques have been used. The relative performances of selected repeated(More)
BACKGROUND Violence against women is driven by gender norms that normalize and justify gender inequality and violence. Gender norms are substantially shaped during adolescence. Programs offered through schools offer an opportunity to influence gender attitudes toward gender equity if we understand these to be partly shaped by peers and the school(More)
BACKGROUND Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV) remains a global public health challenge. Studies suggest urban informal settlements have particularly high levels of IPV and HIV-prevalence and these settlements are rapidly growing. The current evidence base of effective approaches to preventing IPV recognizes the potential of combining economic(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding the past-year prevalence of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and risk factors is essential for building evidence-based prevention and monitoring progress to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5.2, but so far, population-based research on this remains very limited. The objective of this study is to compare the(More)
Men's perpetration of gender-based violence remains a global public health issue. Violence prevention experts call for engagement of boys and men to change social norms around masculinity in order to prevent gender-based violence. Yet, men do not comprise a homogenous category. Drawing on probability estimates of men who report same-sex practices and(More)
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