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This study evaluated risk factors associated with prevalent HIV-1 infection among pregnant women in a semi-rural but densely populated area surrounding the town of Butare in Rwanda. Overall seroprevalence was 9.3% in 5690 pregnant women who sought antenatal care at one of five health centres. Factors associated with higher seroprevalence of HIV-1 included(More)
In order to define the risk factors for infection with hepatitis C virus, the authors determined the prevalence and incidence of antibodies to hepatitis C in three cohorts in Baltimore, Maryland, enrolled in prospective studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection. Among 500 multi-transfused patients who underwent cardiac surgery in 1985 and(More)
We tested the hypothesis that priming exercise would speed V(O2) kinetics during treadmill running. Eight subjects completed a square-wave protocol, involving two bouts of treadmill running at 70% of the difference between the running speeds at lactate threshold (LT) and V(O2) max, separated by 6-min of walking at 4 km h(-1), on two occasions. Oxygen uptake(More)
Injection drug users are at high risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In Baltimore, Maryland, the prevalence of anti-HCV is greater among injection drug users who are black, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected, have injected longer, have injected more frequently, and have injected cocaine than among other injection drug users. HCV infection(More)
To assess the incidence of infection with HIV-1 in the Maryland state prison system, inmates with excess sera stored from specified intake periods between April and June 1985 and 1986 were approached in May 1987 to volunteer for venipuncture. Of the 2286 inmates for whom intake specimens were stored, 1038 (45.4%) no longer incarcerated as of April 1987 were(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether select bacterial infections are associated with HTLV-II infection among injection drug users, we conducted a nested case control study within an ongoing cohort study. METHOD HTLV-II status was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescent assay, and immunoblot. Diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia, infective(More)
The diagnosis of complete tears of the ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint depends on demonstration of excessive laxity of the ligament, but there is controversy on whether laxity greater than a certain cut-off value or laxity greater than the opposite thumb is the criterion for diagnosis. We examined 200 thumbs of 100(More)
In a clinical trial of 172 patients at four medical centers, interferon alfa-2b (1.5 x 10(6) IU) or a placebo was injected directly into biopsy-proved noduloulcerative or superficial basal cell carcinomas three times weekly for 3 weeks, for a cumulative dose of 13.5 million IU. Efficacy of treatment was determined at 16 to 20 weeks by examination of biopsy(More)
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) became the leading cause of death among Maryland State prisoners in 1985. To identify the prevalence, risk factors, and temporal trends for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the statewide prison system, excess sera were obtained from incoming male inmates during specified periods(More)
BACKGROUND Health care personnel are at increased risk of occupational acquisition of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. While effective vaccination for HBV is widely available, the prevalence of HBV and vaccine acceptance in hospital personnel have not been recently assessed. In addition, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a newly recognized cause of parenterally(More)