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RATIONALE Novel tuberculosis (TB) vaccines should be safe and effective in populations infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and/or HIV for effective TB control. OBJECTIVE To determine the safety and immunogenicity of MVA85A, a novel TB vaccine, among M.tb- and/or HIV-infected persons in a setting where TB and HIV are endemic. METHODS An(More)
High Ag load in chronic viral infections has been associated with impairment of Ag-specific T cell responses; however, the relationship between Ag load in chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and functional capacity of M. tuberculosis-specific T cells in humans is not clear. We compared M. tuberculosis-specific T cell-associated cytokine production(More)
Antigen-specific proliferation is a critical function of memory T cells that is often utilised to measure vaccine immunogenicity and T cell function. We proposed that measurement of intracellular expression of the nuclear protein, Ki67, could reliably assess specific T cell proliferation in vitro. Ki67 was expressed in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that had(More)
A result of Milnor 1] states that the innmum of the total curvature of a tame knot K is given by 2(K), where (K) is the crookedness of the knot K. It is also known that (K)=b(K), where b(K) is the bridge index of K 2]. The situation appears to be quite diierent for knots realised as polygons in the cubic lattice. We study the total curvature of lattice(More)
The number of lattice bond trees in the square lattice (counted modulo translations), t(n), is a basic quantity in lattice statistical mechanical models of branched polymers. This number is believed to have asymptotic behavior given by t(n) approximately Alambda(n)n(-theta), where A is an amplitude, lambda is the growth constant, and theta the entropic(More)
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