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Resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) threatens the success of programs to reduce HIV morbidity and mortality, particularly in countries with few treatment options. In the present study, genotype and phenotype data from ART-naïve and experienced hospitalized patients infected with HIV in Tehran, Iran were used to assess the prevalence and types of(More)
BACKGROUND Immunomodulators and Nucleotide analogues have been used globally for the dealing of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the development of drug resistance is a major limitation to their long-term effectiveness. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to characterize the hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase (RT) protein(More)
This study was designed to determine the correlation of hepatitis B virus surface Ag (HBsAg) variations with the clinical/serological pictures among chronic HBsAg positive patients. The surface gene (S-gene) was amplified and directly sequenced in twenty-five patients. Eight samples (group I) contained at least one mutation at the amino acid level. Five(More)
Occult hepatitis B (OHB), or persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) viremia in surface-antigen-HBsAg-negative patients, has been recognized as a medical concern during the last decade. The exact magnitude, pathogenesis and clinical relevance of OHB are unclear. This review organizes the published data on OHB and presents an overview of the current hypotheses on(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays important roles in multiple cellular processes as well as cell survival and apoptosis. Perturbation of ER functions leads to ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). The primary goal of this response is cell survival, but severe ER stress can trigger apoptosis signaling. In tumor cells, chronically activated UPR(More)
BACKGROUND Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection is a major cause of bird or human mortality and morbidity, therefore the rapid identification of the virus is of important clinical and epidemiological implication. METHODS A multiplex Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was optimized for the detection of influenza A virus and the H5 and H9 subtypes. The(More)
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