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Pancreatic cancer, a hypovascular and highly desmoplastic cancer, is characterized by tumor expression of Hedgehog (HH) ligands that signal to fibroblasts in the surrounding stroma that in turn promote tumor survival and growth. However, the mechanisms and consequences of stromal HH pathway activation are not well understood. Here, we show that the HH(More)
Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest human malignancies, with few therapeutic options. Re-activation of embryonic signaling pathways is commonly in human pancreatic cancer and provided rationale to explore inhibition of these pathways therapeutically. Notch signaling is important during pancreatic development, and it is re-activated in pancreatic(More)
Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) possess great potential as sequence-specific therapeutic agents. Sufficient concentrations of intact ODN must bypass membrane barriers and access the cytosol and nucleus, for ODNs to be therapeutically effective. A cytosolic delivery strategy was designed to improve the efficiency of ODN delivery in bone-marrow-derived(More)
Pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest human malignancies, is associated with oncogenic Kras and is most commonly preceded by precursor lesions known as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanIN). PanIN formation is accompanied by the establishment of an immunotolerant microenvironment. However, the immune contribution to the initiation of pancreatic(More)
BACKGROUND Pancreatic cancer is characterised by the accumulation of a fibro-inflammatory stroma. Within this stromal reaction, myeloid cells are a predominant population. Distinct myeloid subsets have been correlated with tumour promotion and unmasking of anti-tumour immunity. OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to determine the effect of myeloid cell(More)
Pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest human malignancies, is almost uniformly associated with a mutant, constitutively active form of the oncogene Kras. Studies in genetically engineered mouse models have defined a requirement for oncogenic KRAS in both the formation of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, the most common precursor lesions to pancreatic(More)
7. FUWA, K., WACKER, W. E. C., DRUYAN, R., BARTHOLOMY, A. F., AND VALLEE, B. L., Proc. Katl. Acad. Sci. U. S., 46, 1198 (1960). MAHLER, H. R., DUTTON, G., AND MEHROTRA, B. D., Biochim. et Btiphys. Acta, 68, 199 (1963). 8. 9. FRESCO, J. R., ALBERT, B. M., AND DOTY, P., Nature, 188, 98 (1960). BRUNNGRABER, E. F., Biochem. and Biophys. Research Communs., 8, 1(More)
Mast cells, shown in Figure 1, are a type of immune cell found in connective tissue of the body. When the cells are stimulated they release chemicals such as serotonin from their cellular granules into the extracellular matrix. Mast cells were cultured with various concentrations of gold nanoparticles. Amperometric techniques indicate that the nanoparticles(More)
Specific Sand N-acetylations of the protein by two model substrates, acetyl phosphate and P-nitrophenyl acetate, have been related to the catalytic activity of d-phosphoglyceraldehyde dehydrogenase in the following manner. 1. DPN facilitates the S-acetylation of the dehydrogenase with acetyl phosphate but inhibits the reaction with pnitrophenyl acetate. 2.(More)