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BACKGROUND Dietary vitamin D supplementation is associated with reduced risk of type 1 diabetes in animals. Our aim was to ascertain whether or not vitamin D supplementation or deficiency in infancy could affect development of type 1 diabetes. METHODS A birth-cohort study was done, in which all pregnant women (n=12055) in Oulu and Lapland, northern(More)
OBJECTIVE We examined the prevalence and associated factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a 57-year-old unselected urban population in northern Finland. METHODS A health survey was conducted in 2002 that targeted persons born in 1945 and residing in the city of Oulu on 31 December, 2001. Their history of RLS, coronary heart disease (CHD), daytime(More)
PURPOSE Visual field defects and changes in the optic nerve head are signs of glaucoma. It has been shown that blue-on-yellow (B-Y) perimetry can reveal visual field defects earlier and shows them larger than does white-on-white (W-W) perimetry. The Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT) can produce three-dimensional images of the optic disc. The aim of this(More)
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue is the most common cancer in the oral cavity and has a high mortality rate. A total of 90 mobile tongue SCC samples were analysed for Bryne's malignancy scores, microvascular density, and thickness of the SCC sections. In addition, the staining pattern of cyclooxygenase-2, alphavbeta6 integrin, the laminin-5(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of two occupational health intervention programmes, both compared with usual care. METHODS Based on a health survey, 1341 employees (88% males) in construction, service and maintenance work were classified into three groups: "low risk" (n = 386), "intermediate risk" (n = 537) and "high risk" (n = 418) of sickness(More)
BACKGROUND The association between adiposity and cardiometabolic traits is well known from epidemiological studies. Whilst the causal relationship is clear for some of these traits, for others it is not. We aimed to determine whether adiposity is causally related to various cardiometabolic traits using the Mendelian randomization approach. METHODS AND(More)
In male and female rats of two different age groups, we measured the arginine-vasopressin (AVP) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected at different times of the day. Mean values of AVP in cisternal CSF averaged across the different times of the day were higher in males than in females (p = 0.02), and in young (2 months) than in aged (12 months) rats(More)
The association between variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene and adulthood body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) is well-replicated. More thorough analyses utilizing phenotypic data over the life course may deepen our understanding of the development of BMI and thus help in the prevention of obesity. The authors used a(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether, from a healthcare perspective, a specific occupational health intervention is cost effective in reducing sickness absence when compared with usual care in occupational health in workers with high risk of sickness absence. METHODS Economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial. 418 workers with high risk of(More)
In the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed, embryos grow and develop within the corrosion cavity of the megagametophyte, a maternally derived haploid tissue, which houses the majority of the storage reserves of the seed. In the present study, histochemical methods and quantification of the expression levels of the programmed cell death (PCD) and DNA(More)