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BACKGROUND Dietary vitamin D supplementation is associated with reduced risk of type 1 diabetes in animals. Our aim was to ascertain whether or not vitamin D supplementation or deficiency in infancy could affect development of type 1 diabetes. METHODS A birth-cohort study was done, in which all pregnant women (n=12055) in Oulu and Lapland, northern(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, two centers have independently developed a risk score for predicting postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). This study investigated (1) whether risk scores are valid across centers and (2) whether risk scores based on logistic regression coefficients can be simplified without loss of discriminating power. METHODS Adult patients(More)
A prospective interview-based survey on the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in 1107 in-patients aged 4-86 years was conducted during a 3-month period. Nausea, emetic episodes and the need for anti-emetic medication were recorded for 24 h postoperatively. In the recovery room, the incidence of nausea and vomiting was 18% and 5%, respectively.(More)
The numbers of new cancer cases in 16 common sites occurring in 1980 have been estimated for 24 areas of the world for which the United Nations produces population estimates. For the world as a whole, the total number of new cases was 6.35 million, almost exactly evenly divided between the developed and developing countries. In males, the most important(More)
This study was designed to estimate the relative cancer risk of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis, with reference to different treatments. A cohort of 5687 hospitalized patients with psoriasis obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register in 1973-84 was linked with the records of the Finnish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios(More)
The effectiveness of simultaneously administered influenza and pneumococcal vaccines vs. influenza vaccine alone in preventing pneumonia, pneumococcal pneumonia and pneumococcal bacteraemia among the elderly was studied. The vaccines were offered to all persons aged 65 years or older (N=43,500) living in 35 administrative districts in Northern Finland. A(More)
Epidemiological evidence suggests that airway obstruction is an independent risk factor for lung cancer and that this cannot be explained by active or passive smoking alone. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been associated with chronic bronchitis and its exacerbates. Our aim was to evaluate the association between chronic C. pneumoniae infection and risk(More)
PURPOSE Visual field defects and changes in the optic nerve head are signs of glaucoma. It has been shown that blue-on-yellow (B-Y) perimetry can reveal visual field defects earlier and shows them larger than does white-on-white (W-W) perimetry. The Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT) can produce three-dimensional images of the optic disc. The aim of this(More)
The present study assessed the relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in a home-dwelling elderly population. A population-based cohort of 817 men and women born in 1920 or earlier and living in northern Finland provided complete data on daily coffee consumption and other variables at the baseline examination in 1991-1992. Deaths were(More)
The evidence for the putative role of cow's milk in the development of type 1 diabetes is controversial. We studied infant feeding patterns and childhood diet by structured questionnaire (n = 725) and HLA-DQB1 genotype by a polymerase chain reaction-based method (n = 556) in siblings of affected children and followed them for clinical type 1 diabetes. In a(More)