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Bcl-2 oncogene expression plays a role in the establishment of persistent viral infection by blocking virus-induced apoptosis. This might be achieved by preventing virus-induced activation of caspase-3, an IL-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE)-like cysteine protease that has been implicated in the death effector phase of apoptosis. Contrary to this model, we(More)
Transmission of Trypanosoma brucei by the tsetse fly entails several rounds of differentiation as the parasite migrates through the digestive tract to the salivary glands of its vector. Differentiation of the bloodstream to the procyclic form in the fly midgut is accompanied by the synthesis of a new coat consisting of EP and GPEET procyclins. There are(More)
Bacteriological culture as a diagnostic tool for chronic infections with Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection is not completely satisfactory. The cyclical shedding pattern of Staph. aureus with intervals of low excretion is considered to be the main reason. We recently developed a novel assay for Staph. aureus in milk, based on real-time(More)
Based on a former study from our group, one subtype of Staphylococcus aureus was associated with high within-herd prevalence of mastitis, whereas the other subtypes were associated with a low prevalence (sporadic intramammary infection). To confirm this hypothesis, a prospective study was done in 29 Swiss dairy herds. In particular, milk samples were(More)
In cycling between the mammalian host and the tsetse fly vector, trypanosomes undergo major changes in energy metabolism and surface coat composition. Early procyclic (insect) forms in the tsetse fly midgut are coated by glycoproteins known as EP and GPEET procyclins. EP expression continues in late procyclic forms, whereas GPEET is down-regulated. In(More)
Procyclic forms of Trypanosoma brucei reside in the midgut of tsetse flies where they are covered by several million copies of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins known as procyclins. It has been proposed that procyclins protect parasites against proteases and/or participate in tropism, directing them from the midgut to the salivary glands. There(More)
A 'two coat' model of the life cycle of Trypanosoma brucei has prevailed for more than 15 years. Metacyclic forms transmitted by infected tsetse flies and mammalian bloodstream forms are covered by variant surface glycoproteins. All other life cycle stages were believed to have a procyclin coat, until it was shown recently that epimastigote forms in tsetse(More)
Immune complexes of simian virus 40 large T-antigen with monoclonal papovavirus protein antibodies PAb 416, PAb 402, or PAb 423 were bound to protein-A-Sepharose and then cleaved into discrete fragments by limited tryptic proteolysis. PAb 402 protected a specific cleavage site, located approximately within amino acid residues 450-500, from tryptic(More)
The procyclin genes in Trypanosoma brucei are transcribed by RNA polymerase I as part of 5-10 kb long polycistronic transcription units on chromosomes VI and X. Each procyclin locus begins with two procyclin genes followed by at least one procyclin-associated gene (PAG). In procyclic (insect midgut) form trypanosomes, PAG mRNA levels are about 100-fold(More)
Here we show that the capsid (C) protein of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) contains two nucleolar targeting signals (NOS) responsible for the karyophilic properties of this protein. When conjugated to the non-karyophilic carrier protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), the two synthetic nuclear localization sequences (NLS) of the C protein transferred with equal(More)