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A multisurface model is used to evaluate the contribution of various sorption surfaces to the control of heavy metal activity in sandy soil samples at pH 3.7-6.1 with different sorbent contents. This multisurface model considers soil as a set of independent sorption surfaces, i.e. organic matter (NICA-Donnan), clay silicate (Donnan), and iron hydroxides(More)
The complexation of heavy metals with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the environment influences the solubility and mobility of these metals. In this paper, we measured the complexation of Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Pb with DOM in the soil solution at pH 3.7-6.1 using a Donnan membrane technique. The results show that the DOM-complexed species is generally more(More)
Most research dealing with soil (solution) speciation and metal uptake by plants has focused on the relationships between a certain bioavailable fraction in the soil and metal uptake by aboveground parts of the plants. Here, a new approach to interpretation of metal uptake is presented that considers four steps: First, the metal concentration in the soil(More)
Two wet digestion procedures for the determination of lead in plant materials by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry have been evaluated. The combination of HNO3, H2O2 and HF, though leading to incomplete digestion, yielded values corresponding well with the reference or indicative values of the vegetal tissues used. The mixture of H2SO4, HNO3 and(More)
Determination of the isotopic signature of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is important to assess its dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. Analysis of (15)N-DON, however, has been hindered by the lack of simple, reliable, and established methods. We evaluate three off-line techniques for measuring the (15)N signature of DON in the presence of inorganic N(More)
Several techniques for speciation analysis of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni are used in freshwater systems and compared with respect to their performance and to the metal species detected. The analytical techniques comprise the following: (i) diffusion gradients in thin-film gels (DGT); (ii) gel integrated microelectrodes combined to voltammetric in situ profiling(More)
Metal toxicity is not related to the total but rather to the free or labile metal ion concentration. One of the techniques that can be used to measure several free metal ion concentrations simultaneously is the Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT) in combination with the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). However, free metal ion(More)
Subsurface aeration is used to oxidise Fe in situ in groundwater that is used to make drinking water potable. In a groundwater system with pH>7 subsurface aeration results in non-mobile Fe precipitate and mobile Fe colloids. Since originally the goal of subsurface aeration is to remove iron in situ, the formation of non-mobile iron precipitate, which(More)
Within the biotic ligand model, which describes relationships between chemical speciation and metal binding at an organism's surface, multicomponent (long-term) metal uptake by plants has seldom been studied. In the present work, we exposed perennial ryegrass to nutrient solutions with two levels of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn (1 and 0.1 microM) and with or(More)
The total metal content of the soil or total metal concentration in the soil solution is not always a good indicator for metal availability to plants. Therefore, several speciation techniques have been developed that measure a defined fraction of the total metal concentration in the soil solution. In this study the Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT) was used(More)