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INTRODUCTION The Chinese extract Rhizoma coptidis is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiviral, and antimicrobial activity. The exact mechanisms of action are not fully understood. METHODS We examined the effect of the extract and its main compound, berberine, on LPS-induced inflammatory activity in a murine macrophage cell line. RAW(More)
OBJECTIVE Inflammatory mechanisms are involved in atherosclerotic plaque rupture and subsequent thrombin formation. Thrombin not only plays a central role in thrombus formation and platelet activation, but also in the induction of inflammatory processes. We assessed the hypothesis that melagatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, attenuates plaque progression(More)
OBJECTIVE This study sought to determine whether simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, has stabilizing effects on vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques that are independent of their lipid-lowering capabilities. METHODS AND RESULTS Simvastatin (50 mg/kg per day) was administered to 30-week-old apolipoprotein E-deficient(More)
AIM Thrombin not only plays a central role in thrombus formation and platelet activation, but also in induction of inflammatory processes. Activated factor X (FXa) is traditionally known as an important player in the coagulation cascade responsible for thrombin generation. We assessed the hypothesis that rivaroxaban, a direct FXa inhibitor, attenuates(More)
  • L A Campbell, E Blessing, M Rosenfeld, T m Lin, C Kuo
  • 2000
Mouse models were used to determine whether Chlamydia pneumoniae establishes chronic infection of the aorta and contributes to atherogenesis. Persistent infection of the aorta occurred in 11 of 31 hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice but not in C57BL/6J mice fed a normal diet after a single inoculation and in both models following(More)
OBJECTIVE Macrophage-derived products are known to play a crucial role during atherogenesis and vascular calcification. Glucocorticoids (GC) are important modulators of immune cell functions, but their specific effects on macrophages behavior during plaque formation are not defined. The present study was therefore designed to investigate the effects of(More)
BACKGROUND Processes of restenosis, following arterial injury, are complex involving different cell types producing various cytokines and enzymes. Among those enzymes, smooth muscle cell-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to take part in cell migration, degrading of extracellular matrix, and neointima formation. MMP-9, also known as(More)
BACKGROUND The cytokine growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), a member of the TGF beta superfamily, has recently been discovered to play an important role in cardiovascular diseases. It is mostly expressed in macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions, but its impact on advanced atherosclerosis is still unknown. This study was performed to evaluate the(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether antimicrobial chemotherapy prevents acceleration of atherosclerotic lesion development induced by infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. METHODS ApoE-deficient mice which develop hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis spontaneously were inoculated intranasally with C. pneumoniae. Animals were treated with azithromycin for 6 weeks(More)
Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induces inflammatory changes in blood vessels in normocholesterolemic rabbits, but it is not known whether the same phenomenon occurs in other animal models. Thus, in this study, C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with C. pneumoniae. Inflammatory changes in the heart or aorta were observed in a small number of chronically infected(More)