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The human multidrug resistance protein (MRP1) causes drug resistance by extruding drugs from tumor cells. In addition to an MDR-like core, MRP1 contains an N-terminal membrane-bound region (TMD0) connected to the core by a cytoplasmic linker (L0). We have studied truncated MRP1 versions containing either the MDR-like core alone or the core plus linker L0,(More)
The applications of disulfide-bond chemistry to studies of protein folding, structure, and stability are reviewed and illustrated with bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A). After surveying the general properties and advantages of disulfide-bond studies, we illustrate the mechanism of reductive unfolding with RNase A, and discuss its application to(More)
The oxidative folding of proteins is reviewed and illustrated with bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A). The mutual effects of conformational folding and disulfide bond regeneration are emphasized, particularly the "locking in" of native disulfide bonds by stable tertiary structure in disulfide intermediates. Two types of structured metastable(More)
The human MDR3 gene is a member of the multidrug resistance (MDR) gene family. The MDR3 P-glycoprotein is a transmembrane protein that translocates phosphatidylcholine. The MDR1 P-glycoprotein related transports cytotoxic drugs. Its overexpression can make cells resistant to a variety of drugs. Attempts to show that MDR3 P-glycoprotein can cause MDR have(More)
Proline cis-trans isomerization plays a key role in the rate-determining steps of protein folding. The energetic origin of this isomerization process is summarized, and the folding and unfolding of disulfide-intact bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A is used as an example to illustrate the kinetics and structural features of conformational changes from the(More)
The membrane topology of the human multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) was examined by flow cytometry phenotyping, immunoblotting, and limited proteolysis in drug-resistant human and baculovirus-infected insect cells, expressing either the glycosylated or the underglycosylated forms of this protein. Inhibition of N-linked glycosylation in human(More)
The characteristics of P-glycoprotein (MDR1), an ATP-dependent drug extrusion pump responsible for the multidrug resistance of human cancer, were investigated in an in vitro expression system. The wild-type and several mutants of the human MDR1 cDNA were engineered into recombinant baculoviruses and the mutant proteins were expressed in Sf9 insect cells. In(More)
A number of mutants with single amino acid replacements were generated in the highly conserved ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-signature region (amino acids 531-543) of the N-terminal half of the human multidrug resistance (MDR1) protein. The cDNA variants were inserted into recombinant baculoviruses and the MDR1 proteins were expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda(More)
A method for determining the kinetic fate of structured disulfide species (i.e., whether they are preferentially oxidized or reshuffle back to an unstructured disulfide species) is introduced. The method relies on the sensitivity of unstructured disulfide species to low concentrations of reducing agents. Because a structured des species that preferentially(More)