Learn More
The applications of disulfide-bond chemistry to studies of protein folding, structure, and stability are reviewed and illustrated with bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A). After surveying the general properties and advantages of disulfide-bond studies, we illustrate the mechanism of reductive unfolding with RNase A, and discuss its application to(More)
The oxidative folding of proteins is reviewed and illustrated with bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A). The mutual effects of conformational folding and disulfide bond regeneration are emphasized, particularly the "locking in" of native disulfide bonds by stable tertiary structure in disulfide intermediates. Two types of structured metastable(More)
The human multidrug resistance protein (MRP1) causes drug resistance by extruding drugs from tumor cells. In addition to an MDR-like core, MRP1 contains an N-terminal membrane-bound region (TMD0) connected to the core by a cytoplasmic linker (L0). We have studied truncated MRP1 versions containing either the MDR-like core alone or the core plus linker L0,(More)
A method for determining the kinetic fate of structured disulfide species (i.e., whether they are preferentially oxidized or reshuffle back to an unstructured disulfide species) is introduced. The method relies on the sensitivity of unstructured disulfide species to low concentrations of reducing agents. Because a structured des species that preferentially(More)
The characteristics of P-glycoprotein (MDR1), an ATP-dependent drug extrusion pump responsible for the multidrug resistance of human cancer, were investigated in an in vitro expression system. The wild-type and several mutants of the human MDR1 cDNA were engineered into recombinant baculoviruses and the mutant proteins were expressed in Sf9 insect cells. In(More)
Two new three-disulfide intermediates have been found to be populated in the oxidative folding pathway of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A at a low temperature (15 degrees C). These intermediates, des-[26-84] and des-[58-110], possess all but one of the four native disulfide bonds and have a stable tertiary structure, similar to the two previously observed(More)
RNase A, a model protein for oxidative folding studies, has four native disulfide bonds. The roles of des [40-95] and des [65-72], the two native-like structured three-disulfide-bonded intermediates populated between 8 and 25 degrees C during the oxidative folding of RNase A, are well characterized. Recent work focuses on both the formation of these(More)
The human MDR3 gene is a member of the multidrug resistance (MDR) gene family. The MDR3 P-glycoprotein is a transmembrane protein that translocates phosphatidylcholine. The MDR1 P-glycoprotein related transports cytotoxic drugs. Its overexpression can make cells resistant to a variety of drugs. Attempts to show that MDR3 P-glycoprotein can cause MDR have(More)
Proline cis-trans isomerization plays a key role in the rate-determining steps of protein folding. The energetic origin of this isomerization process is summarized, and the folding and unfolding of disulfide-intact bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A is used as an example to illustrate the kinetics and structural features of conformational changes from the(More)