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Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a brain-enriched mRNA with a protein product(s) that is a candidate brain neurotransmitter. We have developed antisera to CART peptide fragment 106-129 and have demonstrated specific immunoreactivity (IR) at the light microscopic level throughout the brain, spinal cord, and retina. All brain nuclei(More)
CART peptide specific polyclonal antisera were raised in rabbits. The antisera were raised to CART peptide fragments that span most of the predicted CART protein. The specificity of each antisera was demonstrated by blockade of immunostaining by the immunizing peptide but not by the other CART peptide fragments. In the hypothalamus and pituitary of(More)
CART (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript) is a novel, brain-enriched mRNA which predicts a novel protein without homology to any known protein or peptide. In situ hybridization studies have identified many expression sites in the brain and periphery as well as clarify its expression in three known areas. CART mRNA has been localized to ganglion(More)
Our previous studies showed the modulation of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) positive neurons and CART mRNA by adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement in hypothalamic nuclei of male rat brain. More recently, we have shown by CART immunohistochemistry that restraint and forced swim (FS) stress have sexually dimorphic and regionally(More)
Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) encodes a novel brain-enriched protein whose features are reminiscent of a neurotransmitter propeptide. We have now localized CART peptide(s) in the gastrointestinal tract by immunohistochemical methods. Polyclonal antisera raised to CART peptide 106-129 stained neuronal cell bodies and fibers in rat ileum(More)
This study tested for sex differences in the effects of chronic nicotine administration and withdrawal on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding in brain. Rats received nicotine (0.6 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline once daily for 15 days, and were sacrificed 1 or 20 days after termination of treatment. Saturation studies of nAChR binding were performed using(More)
Nicotine exerts its central actions by regulating cationic fluxes through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). By this effect, the drug likely also modifies events occurring beyond the nAChR, including the regulation of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of acute and chronic nicotine administration(More)
Cholinergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in spatial memory and are modulated by nitric oxide (NO); NO has well documented effects on place learning in rodents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of NOS inhibition on place learning in the water maze and to evaluate the relationships between NOS inhibition, learning(More)
CART peptide is a neurotransmitter involved in various physiological processes including feeding, sensory processing, development, addiction, and stress. Substantial amounts of CART mRNA and CART peptide expression have been demonstrated in the hypothalamic periventricular area, the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, the anterior lobe of the pituitary(More)
CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides are proposed to play a role in the action of psychostimulants as neurotransmitters/neuromodulators. In the present study, we demonstrate that the shell of the nucleus accumbens, a brain structure involved in drug reinforcement, is densely innervated by a dense plexus of CART(More)