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Timetabling problems are constraint optimization problems proven to be NP complete. Furthermore, evaluation of violations is costly, and there is no common data format for representing timetabling problem instances. In this paper, a framework for designing memetic algorithms (MAs) to solve timetabling problems is described and a tool, named Final Exam(More)
The incidence of the neuropathological lesions and the severity of the clinical symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS) are correlated with the amount of the transferred autoreactive T cells. The balance between the T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine phenotypes may affect the activity of the disease in MS patients. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a(More)
Dentin dysplasia type I is a rare hereditary disturbance of dentin formation characterized clinically by nearly normal appearing crowns and severe hypermobility of teeth. Radiographic analysis shows obliteration of all pulp chambers, short, blunted, and malformed roots, and periapical radiolucencies of noncarious teeth. This paper presents 2 cases(More)
PURPOSE In the tooth- and implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis (FDP), rigid and nonrigid connector (NRC) designs have been preferred by clinicians for many years. The aim of this study was to analyze the stress distribution on the connecting areas of the superstructure and supporting structure of the tooth- and implant-supported FDP designs under both(More)
In this article cases involving periapical radiolucencies, which were treated by orthograde amalgam root canal filling, are described. In the obturation phase, with a good condensation of amalgam, the lateral canals and the apical ramifications could be hermetically sealed. This obturation technique is applicable to both nonsurgical and surgical(More)
guidance and encouragement during this project. I would like to thank my family for their support and love begins from my birth. Life has no meaning without them. I am also truly grateful to Elif Gürbüz, for her infinite patience, tolerance, support and friendship. ABSTRACT Timetabling problems are hard problems that can not be solved in polynomial time. As(More)
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