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Defensive behaviors comprise a set of flexible and adaptive responses to threatening situations and stimuli. In semi-natural situations affording a wide variety of responses, defensive behaviors change over time in response to information about the presence of danger, acquired through risk assessment activities. Two test batteries, a Fear/Defense Test(More)
This article reviews the reliability and the validity of the (10-, 20-, and 28-item) Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST). The reliability and the validity of the adolescent version of the DAST are also reviewed. An extensive literature review was conducted using the Medline and Psychinfo databases from the years 1982 to 2005. All articles that addressed the(More)
Dominant and subordinate male rats housed in a visible burrow system (VBS), and male controls each housed with a female, were run in a series of tests evaluating their response to threatening stimuli. Subordinates were later assessed as stress responsive (SRS) or nonresponsive (NRS) on the basis of plasma corticosterone response to restraint stress. In the(More)
In individual resident-intruder or novel arena confrontations alcohol enhancement of aggression appears less robust than when groups of animals receive the drug. Patterns of effects in the latter situations, such as enhanced attack on familiar animals, particularly familiar females, suggest that group living engenders attack inhibitions, perhaps based on(More)
The eYcacy of individual components of an online course on positive course outcome was examined via stepwise multiple regression analysis. Outcome was measured as the student’s total score on all exams given during the course. The predictors were page hits, discussion posts, and discussion reads. The vast majority of the variance of outcome was accounted(More)
The effects of three anxiolytics--gepirone, diazepam, and ethanol--on high-frequency ultrasonic vocalizations elicited from rats via a new method are described. Subjects confronted with an anesthetized, same-sex conspecific in a neutral test cage emitted ultrasonic vocalizations in the 35- to 70-kHz range. The great majority of these were calls with(More)
Animal research into the alcohol-aggression relationship is based on a need to understand this relationship in people, and its success depends on the degree to which animal models can provide appropriate parallels to relevant human phenomena. Comparisons of human and animal literature suggest that parallels may be found for the following: alcohol enhances(More)
OBJECTIVES This study examined the relationship between mental health symptoms and the use of tobacco and caffeinated beverages during and just before a counseling session in a population of adult polysubstance abusers. METHODS The participants were all polysubstance users in substance abuse treatment. The participants completed the Beck Depression(More)
Few provisions of the Bill of Rights are as utterly American as the Fourth Amendment of the Constitution. This amendment grew from the experience of the colonials in America as well as from their English roots. “Every man’s house is his castle.” But what of the body of a woman? This chapter evaluates how the courts attempt to balance the rights of a fetus(More)