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Defensive behaviors comprise a set of flexible and adaptive responses to threatening situations and stimuli. In semi-natural situations affording a wide variety of responses, defensive behaviors change over time in response to information about the presence of danger, acquired through risk assessment activities. Two test batteries, a Fear/Defense Test(More)
Dominant and subordinate male rats housed in a visible burrow system (VBS), and male controls each housed with a female, were run in a series of tests evaluating their response to threatening stimuli. Subordinates were later assessed as stress responsive (SRS) or nonresponsive (NRS) on the basis of plasma corticosterone response to restraint stress. In the(More)
The effects of three anxiolytics--gepirone, diazepam, and ethanol--on high-frequency ultrasonic vocalizations elicited from rats via a new method are described. Subjects confronted with an anesthetized, same-sex conspecific in a neutral test cage emitted ultrasonic vocalizations in the 35- to 70-kHz range. The great majority of these were calls with(More)
The eYcacy of individual components of an online course on positive course outcome was examined via stepwise multiple regression analysis. Outcome was measured as the student's total score on all exams given during the course. The pre-dictors were page hits, discussion posts, and discussion reads. The vast majority of the variance of outcome was accounted(More)
In individual resident-intruder or novel arena confrontations alcohol enhancement of aggression appears less robust than when groups of animals receive the drug. Patterns of effects in the latter situations, such as enhanced attack on familiar animals, particularly familiar females, suggest that group living engenders attack inhibitions, perhaps based on(More)
Animal research into the alcohol-aggression relationship is based on a need to understand this relationship in people, and its success depends on the degree to which animal models can provide appropriate parallels to relevant human phenomena. Comparisons of human and animal literature suggest that parallels may be found for the following: alcohol enhances(More)
Reaction times were used to infer an interaction between different stimuli (verbal and symbolic) and the hand used to respond to such stimuli for 26 college students. Significant differences in reaction times were found dependent upon whether the stimulus was a word or a symbol and which hand was used in response to the different stimuli. There was more(More)
The cerebral damage caused by methamphetamine intoxication can be formidable. Prolonged use is associated with injury to the dopamine system. Essentially, continued methamphetamine use likely leads to axonic degener-ation of the dopamine axon terminals in the striatum, frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala. Hypersensitization of neurons occurs,(More)
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