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Periodic elevation of ambient particulate matter and ozone levels is linked to acute cardiac morbidity and mortality. Increased plasma levels of the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin (ET)-1, a prognostic indicator of cardiac mortality, have been detected in both animal models and humans after exposure to air pollutants. The lungs are the primary source of(More)
Inhalation of urban pollutants elevates the circulating levels of the vasoactive peptides endothelin (ET)-1 and ET-3 in rats. This effect could explain the association between episodic variations of urban pollutants and acute cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality documented in epidemiological studies. Because the lungs are the primary source of(More)
Exposure to coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles is associated with adverse population health impacts. We investigated whether size-fractionated particles collected repeatedly in the vicinity of industrial (steel mills and associated coking operations, wastewater treatment), high traffic, and residential areas display systematic differences in biological(More)
Increased production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is a feature of inflammatory lung diseases, including emphysema and fibrosis, but the divergent pathological characteristics that result indicate involvement of other processes in disease pathogenesis. Transgenic mice overexpressing TNF-α in type II alveolar(More)
Nose-only exposure is used to study the distribution and toxicity of airborne contaminants. Restraint of animals in nose-only tubes causes stress, but the impact on pulmonary mRNA levels is unknown. Since stress and xenobiotics activate common pathways, we assessed whether nose-only exposure would alter expression of toxicologically relevant genes in the(More)
Recent work suggests that air pollution is a risk factor for cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disease. Effects of inhaled pollutants on the production of vasoactive factors such as endothelin (ET) and nitric oxide (NO) in the brain may be relevant to disease pathogenesis. Inhaled pollutants increase circulating levels of ET-1 and ET-3, and the(More)
Perturbation of vascular homeostasis is an important mechanism related to the acute health effects of inhaled pollutants. Inhalation of urban particulate matter and ozone by rats has been shown to result in increased synthesis of the potent vasoactive peptide endothelin (ET)-1 in the lungs, with spillover into the circulation. In the present work, we have(More)
Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between air pollution and adverse effects that extend beyond respiratory and cardiovascular disease, including low birth weight, appendicitis, stroke, and neurological/neurobehavioural outcomes (e.g., neurodegenerative disease, cognitive decline, depression, and suicide). To gain insight into(More)
Growing evidence implicates air pollutants in adverse health effects beyond respiratory and cardiovascular disease, including metabolic impacts (diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity) and neurological/neurobehavioral outcomes (neurodegenerative disease, cognitive decline, perceived stress, depression, suicide). We have shown that inhalation of particulate(More)
We studied the impact of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) on the toxicity of diesel exhaust. Rats inhaled exhaust from a Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine, with and without DPF after-treatment, or HEPA-filtered air for 4h, on 1 day (single exposure) and 3 days (repeated exposures). Biological effects were assessed after 2h (single exposure)(More)