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Influenza viruses exploit host cell machinery to replicate, resulting in epidemics of respiratory illness. In turn, the host expresses antiviral restriction factors to defend against infection. To find host cell modifiers of influenza A H1N1 viral infection, we used a functional genomic screen and identified over 120 influenza A virus-dependency factors(More)
West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne single-stranded (ss)RNA flavivirus, causes human disease of variable severity. We investigated the involvement of Toll-like receptor (Tlr) 3, which recognizes viral double-stranded (ds)RNA, on WNV infection. Tlr3-deficient (Tlr3−/−) mice were more resistant to lethal WNV infection and had impaired cytokine production(More)
West Nile virus (WNV), and related flaviviruses such as tick-borne encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever and dengue viruses, constitute a significant global human health problem. However, our understanding of the molecular interaction of such flaviviruses with mammalian host cells is limited. WNV encodes only 10 proteins, implying that it may(More)
The Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi naturally persists in a cycle that primarily involves ticks and mammals. We have now identified a tick receptor (TROSPA) that is required for spirochetal colonization of Ixodes scapularis. B. burgdorferi outer surface protein A, which is abundantly expressed on spirochetes within the arthropod and essential for(More)
BACKGROUND The risk of acquiring Lyme disease is high in areas in which the disease is endemic, and the development of a safe and effective vaccine is therefore important. METHODS We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial involving 10,936 subjects who lived in areas of the United States in which Lyme disease is endemic. Participants(More)
The Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is maintained in a tick-mouse cycle. Here we show that B. burgdorferi usurps a tick salivary protein, Salp15 (ref. 3), to facilitate the infection of mice. The level of salp15 expression was selectively enhanced by the presence of B. burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis, first indicating that spirochaetes might use(More)
The Lyme disease vaccine is based on the outer-surface lipoprotein (OspA) of the pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, and 95% of vaccine recipients develop substantial titers of antibodies against OspA. Here, we identified seven individuals with very low antibody titers after vaccination (low responders). The macrophages of low responders produced less tumor(More)
The molecular basis of how Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the Lyme disease spirochete, maintains itself in nature via a complex life cycle in ticks and mammals is poorly understood. Outer surface (lipo)protein A (OspA) of Bb has been the most intensively studied of all borrelial molecular constituents, and hence, much has been speculated about the potential(More)
n engl j med 368;3 nejm.org january 17, 2013 291 tory tract infections cautioning against their misuse.3 Linezolid may become subject to similar misuse by physicians who prescribe it for the treatment of undiagnosed infections, as has been reported.4 This observation is consistent with our own at a tertiary care hospital in India. In the recent guidelines(More)
West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses are (re)emerging, mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause human disease and mortality worldwide. Alterations in mosquito gene expression common and unique to individual flaviviral infections are poorly understood. Here, we present a microarray analysis of the Aedes aegypti transcriptome over time(More)