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Glucose-induced insulin secretion is enhanced by a preceeding glucose stimulus. The characteristics of this action of glucose were investigated in perfused pancreas and collagenase-isolated islets of Langerhans. A 20- to 30-min pulse of 27.7 mM glucose enhanced both the first and second phase of insulin release in response to a second glucose stimulus by(More)
The mammalian insulin gene is exclusively expressed in the beta cells of the endocrine pancreas. Two decades of intensive physiological and biochemical studies have led to the identification of regulatory sequence motifs along the insulin promoter and to the isolation of transcription factors which interact to activate gene transcription. The majority of(More)
The protein kinase C (PKC) family consists of 11 isoenzymes. Following activation, each isoenzyme translocates and binds to a specific receptor for activated C kinase (RACK) (Mochly-Rosen, D. (1995) Science 268, 247-251) that provides an anchoring site in close proximity to the isoenzyme's specific substrate. Pancreatic islet cells contain at least six PKC(More)
Most scientists, I am sure, once middle-aged get a feeling of frustration which is unrelated to their own degree of success or failure in academic life, but rather due to the essence of research. Indeed, the fact that knowledge is a purely dialectic process, an endless spiral, makes the situation of the researcher quite an ambiguous one. Whereas each time(More)
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and progressive beta-cell failure. Deficient insulin secretion, with increased proportions of insulin precursor molecules, is a common feature of type 2 diabetes; this could result from inappropriate beta-cell function and/or reduced beta-cell mass. Most studies using tissues from diabetic patients are(More)
BACKGROUND Palmitate is a potent inducer of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in beta-cells. In type 2 diabetes, glucose amplifies fatty-acid toxicity for pancreatic beta-cells, leading to beta-cell dysfunction and death. Why glucose exacerbates beta-cell lipotoxicity is largely unknown. Glucose stimulates mTORC1, an important nutrient sensor involved in(More)
The gerbil Psammomys obesus develops nutrition-dependent diabetes associated with moderate obesity. The disease is characterized by initial hyperinsulinemia, progressing to hypoinsulinemia associated with depleted pancreatic insulin stores. The contribution of changes in beta-cell turnover to insulin deficiency was investigated in vivo during transition to(More)
Glucose-induced potentiation of glucose-induced insulin release was quantitatively evaluated in 14 non-obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance but decreased insulin response, and in six non-obese patients with mild, adult-onset diabetes, by measuring the insulin responses to two consecutive glucose infusion tests, administered with 40 or 70 min(More)