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During microtubule depolymerization, the central, juxtanuclear Golgi apparatus scatters to multiple peripheral sites. We have tested here whether such scattering is due to a fragmentation process and subsequent outward tracking of Golgi units or if peripheral Golgi elements reform through a novel recycling pathway. To mark the Golgi in HeLa cells, we stably(More)
A new approach is presented which allows the in vivo visualization of individual chromosome territories in the nuclei of living human cells. The fluorescent thymidine analog Cy3-AP3-dUTP was microinjected into the nuclei of cultured human cells, such as human diploid fibroblasts, HeLa cells and neuroblastoma cells. The fluorescent analog was incorporated(More)
Lateral root formation in plants can be studied as the process of interaction between chemical signals and physical forces during development. Lateral root primordia grow through overlying cell layers that must accommodate this incursion. Here, we analyze responses of the endodermis, the immediate neighbor to an initiating lateral root. Endodermal cells(More)
We visualized a fluorescent-protein (FP) fusion to Rab6, a Golgi-associated GTPase, in conjunction with fluorescent secretory pathway markers. FP-Rab6 defined highly dynamic transport carriers (TCs) translocating from the Golgi to the cell periphery. FP-Rab6 TCs specifically accumulated a retrograde cargo, the wild-type Shiga toxin B-fragment (STB), during(More)
During unequal cell divisions a mitotic spindle is eccentrically positioned before cell cleavage. To determine the basis of the net force imbalance that causes spindle displacement in one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, we fragmented centrosomes with an ultraviolet laser. Analysis of the mean and variance of fragment speeds suggests that the force(More)
The simplest animal eyes are eyespots composed of two cells only: a photoreceptor and a shading pigment cell. They resemble Darwin's 'proto-eyes', considered to be the first eyes to appear in animal evolution. Eyespots cannot form images but enable the animal to sense the direction of light. They are characteristic for the zooplankton larvae of marine(More)
As soon as a seed germinates, plant growth relates to gravity to ensure that the root penetrates the soil and the shoot expands aerially. Whereas mechanisms of positive and negative orthogravitropism of primary roots and shoots are relatively well understood, lateral organs often show more complex growth behavior. Lateral roots (LRs) seemingly suppress(More)
Spindle elongation segregates chromosomes and occurs in anaphase, an essential step in mitosis. Dynein-mediated pulling forces position the spindle, but their role in anaphase is a matter of debate. Here, we demonstrate that dynein is responsible for rapid spindle elongation in the model fungus Ustilago maydis. We show that initial slow elongation is(More)
In Arabidopsis, lateral root primordia (LRPs) originate from pericycle cells located deep within the parental root and have to emerge through endodermal, cortical, and epidermal tissues. These overlaying tissues place biomechanical constraints on the LRPs that are likely to impact their morphogenesis. This study probes the interplay between the patterns of(More)
Asymmetric positioning of the mitotic spindle in C. elegans embryos is mediated by force-generating complexes that are anchored at the plasma membrane and that pull on microtubules growing out from the spindle poles. Although asymmetric distribution of the force generators is thought to underlie asymmetric positioning of the spindle, the number and location(More)