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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of health insurance on resource mobilization, financial protection, service utilization, quality of care, social inclusion and community empowerment in low- and lower-middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. METHODS A systematic search for randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental and observational studies(More)
To improve equity in the provision of health care and provide risk protection to poor households, low-income countries are increasingly moving to social health insurance. Using data from a household survey of 3301 households conducted in 2009 this study aims to evaluate equity in enrollment in the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana and assess(More)
OBJECTIVES This paper outlines the potential strategies to identify the poor, and assesses their feasibility, efficiency and equity. Analyses are illustrated for the case of premium exemptions under National Health Insurance (NHI) in Ghana. METHODS A literature search in Medline search was performed to identify strategies to identify the poor. Models were(More)
OBJECTIVES To analyse the costs and evaluate the equity, efficiency and feasibility of four strategies to identify poor households for premium exemptions in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS): means testing (MT), proxy means testing (PMT), participatory wealth ranking (PWR) and geographic targeting (GT) in urban, rural and semi-urban settings(More)
OBJECTIVE This paper identifies, ranks and compares perceptions of insured and uninsured households in Ghana on health care providers (quality of care, service delivery adequacy, staff attitudes), health insurance schemes (price, benefits and convenience) and community attributes (health 'beliefs and attitudes' and peer pressure). In addition, it explores(More)
BACKGROUND This WHO study aimed to support Turkey in its efforts to strengthen the primary care (PC) system by implementing the WHO Primary Care Evaluation Tool (PCET). This article provides an overview of the organization and provision of primary care in Turkey. METHODS The WHO Primary Care Evaluation Tool was implemented in two provinces (Bolu and(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of three alternative strategies to identify poor households: means testing (MT), proxy means testing (PMT) and participatory wealth ranking (PWR) in urban, rural and semi-urban settings in Ghana. The primary motivation was to inform implementation of the National Health Insurance policy of premium exemptions for the(More)
BACKGROUND Poverty is multi dimensional. Beyond the quantitative and tangible issues related to inadequate income it also has equally important social, more intangible and difficult if not impossible to quantify dimensions. In 2009, we explored these social and relativist dimension of poverty in five communities in the South of Ghana with differing socio(More)
BACKGROUND Ghana since 2004, begun implementation of a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to minimize financial barriers to health care at point of use of service. Usually health insurance is expected to offer financial protection to households. This study aims to analyze the effect health insurance on household out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE),(More)
  • E Spaan
  • 1994
"This article discusses international migration from Java in the past and present and the role brokers have played in stimulating this movement. It describes legal and clandestine labor migration to Singapore, Malaysia, and Saudi Arabia, the influence of employment brokers on the process, and the organization of the recruitment networks. The involvement(More)