Ernst Robert Werner

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Ascorbic acid has been shown to stimulate endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion without affecting NO synthase (NOS) expression or l-arginine uptake. The present study investigates if the underlying mechanism is related to the NOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. Pretreatment of human umbilical vein endothelial(More)
Aspergillus fumigatus, the most common airborne fungal pathogen of humans, employs two high-affinity iron uptake systems: iron uptake mediated by the extracellular siderophore triacetylfusarinine C and reductive iron assimilation. Furthermore, A. fumigatus utilizes two intracellular siderophores, ferricrocin and hydroxyferricrocin, to store iron.(More)
Iron is essential for a wide range of cellular processes. Here we show that the bZIP-type regulator HapX is indispensable for the transcriptional remodeling required for adaption to iron starvation in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. HapX represses iron-dependent and mitochondrial-localized activities including respiration, TCA(More)
BH4 (6R-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin) is an essential cofactor of a set of enzymes that are of central metabolic importance, including four aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase and three NOS (NO synthase) isoenzymes. Consequently, BH4 is present in probably every cell or tissue of higher organisms and plays a key role in a(More)
Iron homeostasis requires subtle control systems, as iron is both essential and toxic. In Aspergillus nidulans, iron represses iron acquisition via the GATA factor SreA, and induces iron-dependent pathways at the transcriptional level, by a so far unknown mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that iron-dependent pathways (e.g., heme biosynthesis) are repressed(More)
Brain nitric oxide synthase is a Ca2+/calmodulin-regulated enzyme which converts L-arginine into NO. Enzymatic activity of this enzyme essentially depends on NADPH and is stimulated by tetrahydrobiopterin (H4biopterin). We found that purified NO synthase contains enzyme-bound H4biopterin, explaining the enzymatic activity observed in the absence of added(More)
PURPOSE The pathologic interactions between tumor and host immune cells within the tumor microenvironment create an immunosuppressive network that promotes tumor growth and protects the tumor from immune attack. In this study, we examined the contribution of the immunomodulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) on this phenomenon. EXPERIMENTAL(More)
The capacity of recombinant interferon-alpha, -beta and -gamma, of bacterial lipopolysaccharide and of recombinant tumour necrosis factor-alpha to induce indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and synthesis of pteridines was studied in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, human macrophages and normal dermal fibroblasts. The action of interferon-alpha and -beta on(More)
A Clark-type nitric oxide-sensitive electrode was used for electrochemical determination of NO oxidation kinetics. Reaction with molecular oxygen followed second-order rate law with respect to NO with an overall rate constant of 9.2 +/- 0.33 x 10(6) M-2 s-1. Tetrahydrobiopterin, an essential cofactor of NO synthases, was found to induce rapid oxidation of(More)