Ernst Meijer

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A new method has been developed that provides mass-conserving wind fields for global chemistry-transport models. In previous global Eulerian modeling studies a mass-imbalance was found between the model mass transport and the surface pressure tendencies. Several methods have been suggested to correct for this imbalance, but so far no satisfactory solution(More)
This is the second part of a rigorous model evaluation study involving five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by different groups in Europe. Simulated trace gas fields were interpolated to the exact times and positions of the observations to account for the actual weather conditions and hence for the specific histories of(More)
Estrogen affects autonomic functions such as micturition. The sacral cord is important in the control of micturition and contains numerous estrogen receptor-alpha immnoreactive (ER-alpha IR) neurons. Therefore, the present double labeling study examines whether sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons innervating the bladder are immunoreactive for(More)
The periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a crucial role in reproductive behavior. The present study investigates whether lumbosacral PAG-projecting neurons contain estrogen receptors. In four ovariectomized adult female cats, injections with cholera toxin subunit (CTb) were made into the PAG to retrogradely label PAG projecting neurons in the lumbosacral cord.(More)
This study describes key aspects of global chemistry-transport models and their impact on stratospheric tracer transport. We concentrate on global models that use assimilated winds from numerical weather predictions, but the results also apply to tracer transport in general circulation models. We examined grid resolution, numerical diffusion, air parcel(More)
To estimate the impact of emissions by road, aircraft and ship traffic on ozone and OH in the present-day atmosphere six different atmospheric chemistry models have been used. Based on newly developed global emission inventories for road, ship and aircraft emission data sets each model performed sensitivity simulations reducing the emissions of each(More)
Recent studies have shown that significant growth in tropospheric NO 2 has occurred over China, especially over its major cities. The main reason for this growth is the increase in anthropogenic NO x emissions as a result from increasing power consumption and traffic. The purpose of this study is to improve the anthropogenic NO x emission estimates in(More)
Recent studies have revealed brainstem-spinal pathways involved in the generation of receptive behavior in hamster and cat, and the enormous influence of estrogen on these pathways. The present study gives an overview of the location of estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive neurons (ER-alpha-IR) in the brainstem of the female hamster. In the mesencephalon,(More)
This is the second part of a rigorous model evaluation study involving five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by different groups in Europe. Simulated trace gas fields were interpolated to the exact times and positions of the observations to account for the actual weather conditions and hence for the 5 specific histories(More)
A new method has been developed that provides mass-conserving wind fields for global chemistry-transport models. In previous global Eulerian modeling studies a mass-imbalance was found between the model mass transport and the surface pressure tendencies. Several methods have been suggested to correct for this imbalance, 5 but so far no satisfactory solution(More)