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A wealth of research demonstrates attentional biases toward threat in the anxiety disorders. Several models have been advanced to explain these biases in anxiety, yet the mechanisms comprising and mediating the biases remain unclear. In the present article, we review evidence regarding the mechanisms of attentional biases through careful examination of the(More)
The dot probe task [J Abnorm Psychol 95 (1986) 15] is an often-used paradigm to investigate selective attention to threat. A facilitated response to probes that appear at the same location of threat information in comparison with responses to probes at the opposite location of threat information is interpreted as vigilance for threat. We argue that the(More)
There is a wealth of evidence demonstrating enhanced attention to threat in high trait anxious individuals (HTA) compared with low trait anxious individuals (LTA). In two experiments, we investigated whether this attentional bias is related to facilitated attentional engagement to threat or difficulties dis-engaging attention from threat. HTA and LTA(More)
Persisting negative thoughts are considered a hallmark of depression. Recent information-processing approaches have begun to uncover underlying mechanisms of depressive rumination. Despite marked advances in this area, there is a lack of integration between psychopathology and cognitive (neuro) science research. We propose the 'impaired disengagement'(More)
BACKGROUND There are numerous indications that impaired inhibition of negative affective material could be an important cognitive component of depression. To study whether impaired inhibition of negative affect is a cognitive vulnerability factor explaining (recurrent) depression, inhibition of positive and negative affective stimuli was examined in(More)
Patients undergoing treatment in an alcohol-rehabilitation clinic performed an Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST) and two Implicit Association Tests (IATs) that were designed to measure implicit attitudes toward alcohol or implicit alcohol-arousal associations. The EAST and IAT data indicated that patients had a more negative implicit attitude toward(More)
Recent studies indicate that depression is characterized by mood-congruent attention bias at later stages of information-processing. Moreover, depression has been associated with enhanced recall of negative information. The present study tested the coherence between attention and memory bias in dysphoria. Stable dysphoric (n = 41) and non-dysphoric (n = 41)(More)
Models of attention and emotion have assigned a special status to the processing of threatening information: Facilitated attentional capture by threat and its prioritized processing would allow for swift and adequate action to potentially dangerous stimuli. In four experiments, we examined the time-course of facilitated orienting of attention to threatening(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate distracter inhibition ability for emotional faces in depression using a negative affective priming (NAP) task combined with event-related potentials (ERP). The reaction times and the ERP amplitudes were recorded during the task. In a first behavioral experiment, control participants (NC), participants who were(More)
We propose a framework to understand increases in vulnerability for depression after recurrent episodes that links attention processes and schema activation to negative mood states, by integrating cognitive and neurobiological findings. Depression is characterized by a mood-congruent attentional bias at later stages of information processing. The basic idea(More)