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Chelicerates constitute a basic arthropod group with fossil representatives from as early as the Cambrian period. Embryonic development and the subdivision of the segmented body region into a prosoma and an opisthosoma are very similar in all extant chelicerates. The mode of head segmentation, however, has long been controversial. Although all other(More)
The lyriform slit-sense organ on the patella of the spider, Cupiennius salei, consists of seven or eight slits, with each slit innervated by a pair of mechanically sensitive neurons. Mechanotransduction is believed to occur at the tips of the dendrites, which are surrounded by a Na+-rich receptor lymph. We studied the ionic basis of sensory transduction in(More)
1. We have developed an isolated mechanoreceptor-organ preparation in which the intact sensory structures are available for mechanical stimulation and electrical recording. The anterior lyriform slit sense organ on the patella of the spider, Cupiennius salei Keys., consists of seven or eight cuticular slits, each innervated by a pair of large bipolar(More)
The mechanosensory organs of arachnids receive diverse peripheral inputs. Little is known about the origin, distribution, and function of these chemical synapses, which we examined in lyriform slit sense organ VS-3 of the spider Cupiennius salei. The cuticular slits of this organ are each associated with two large bipolar mechanosensory neurons with(More)
Indirect immunocytochemical tests were used at the light- and electron-microscopic levels to investigate peripheral chemical synapses in identified sensory neurons of two types of cuticular mechanosensors in the spider Cupiennius salei Keys.: (1) in the lyriform slit-sense organ VS-3 (comprising 7-8 cuticular slits, each innervated by 2 bipolar sensory(More)
Using antisera directed against octopamine (OA), we identified and mapped octopamine-immunoreactive (OA-ir) neurons and their projections in the fused, central ganglion complex of wandering spiders, Cupiennius salei. Labeled cell bodies are concentrated in the subesophageal ganglion complex (SEG) where they are arranged serially in ventral, midline(More)
The mechanosensory neurons of arachnids receive diverse synaptic inputs in the periphery. The function of most of these synapses, however, is unknown. We have carried out detailed electron microscopic investigations of the peripheral synapses at sensory neurons in the compound slit sense organ VS-3 of the spider Cupiennius salei. Based on the localization(More)
Cupiennius salei (Ctenidae) is a tropical wandering spider which lives in close association with a particular type of plant (see companion paper). These plants are the channels through which the spiders receive and emit various types of vibrations. We measured the vibrations the spiders are typically exposed to when they sit on their dwelling plants (banana(More)
Sensitive hearing organs often employ nonlinear mechanical sound processing which generates distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). Such emissions are also recordable from tympanal organs of insects. In vertebrates (including humans), otoacoustic emissions are considered by-products of active sound amplification through specialized sensory(More)
A site-directed antibody was used immunocytochemically to measure the distribution of sodium channels in the tissues of a spider mechanoreceptor organ. The VS-3 slit sense organ contains 7-8 pairs of bipolar sensory neurons; these neurons are representative of a wide range of arthropod mechanoreceptors. Sensory transduction is thought to occur at the tips(More)