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Chelicerates constitute a basic arthropod group with fossil representatives from as early as the Cambrian period. Embryonic development and the subdivision of the segmented body region into a prosoma and an opisthosoma are very similar in all extant chelicerates. The mode of head segmentation, however, has long been controversial. Although all other(More)
The lyriform slit-sense organ on the patella of the spider, Cupiennius salei, consists of seven or eight slits, with each slit innervated by a pair of mechanically sensitive neurons. Mechanotransduction is believed to occur at the tips of the dendrites, which are surrounded by a Na+-rich receptor lymph. We studied the ionic basis of sensory transduction in(More)
This review focuses on the structure and function of a single mechanoreceptor organ in the cuticle of spiders. Knowledge emerging from the study of this organ promises to yield general principles that can be applied to mechanosensation in a wide range of animal systems. The lyriform slit sense organ on the antero-lateral leg patella of the spider Cupiennius(More)
The mechanosensory organs of arachnids receive diverse peripheral inputs. Little is known about the origin, distribution, and function of these chemical synapses, which we examined in lyriform slit sense organ VS-3 of the spider Cupiennius salei. The cuticular slits of this organ are each associated with two large bipolar mechanosensory neurons with(More)
1. We have developed an isolated mechanoreceptor-organ preparation in which the intact sensory structures are available for mechanical stimulation and electrical recording. The anterior lyriform slit sense organ on the patella of the spider, Cupiennius salei Keys., consists of seven or eight cuticular slits, each innervated by a pair of large bipolar(More)
A site-directed antibody was used immunocytochemically to measure the distribution of sodium channels in the tissues of a spider mechanoreceptor organ. The VS-3 slit sense organ contains 7-8 pairs of bipolar sensory neurons; these neurons are representative of a wide range of arthropod mechanoreceptors. Sensory transduction is thought to occur at the tips(More)
1. Intracellular microelectrodes recorded the receptor potential and receptor current in the neurons of spider slit sense organs during mechanical stimulation of the slits. 2. Mechanical stimulation produced two patterns of action potential discharge, corresponding to the two groups of neurons described previously by electrical stimulation. 3. Tetrodotoxin(More)
Using antisera directed against octopamine (OA), we identified and mapped octopamine-immunoreactive (OA-ir) neurons and their projections in the fused, central ganglion complex of wandering spiders, Cupiennius salei. Labeled cell bodies are concentrated in the subesophageal ganglion complex (SEG) where they are arranged serially in ventral, midline(More)
The wandering spider Cupiennius salei Keys uses idiothetic orientation, i.e., memorized information about its own previous movements, to retrieve lost prey. Spiders, having been chased away from a prey fly, return to the capture site (the goal) over a distance of more than 75 cm even though all external orientation cues were precluded. This behavior and its(More)
Our combined histochemical/electrophysiological examination of single, identified muscle fibers demonstrates surprising functional heterogeneity in the claw levator muscle (CL) of spider legs: 1. The muscle raises and retracts the claws and is also involved in tarsal depression (Fig. 1a). InCupiennius salei it is organized in 2 bilaterally asymmetrical(More)