Ernie Willoughby

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A prospective study of serial magnetic resonance (MR) scans of the brain was carried out every 2 weeks for 4 to 6 months in 9 patients with mild, clinically definite, relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Six of the 9 patients developed a total of 12 asymptomatic new lesions in various parts of the brain. In none of the patients were the changes on(More)
We reviewed scales proposed over the past 35 years for the rating of neurologic impairment in MS. We focused on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) which has been recommended as the most useful scale for rating impairment by the International Federation of Multiple Sclerosis Societies in its Minimal Record of Disability for Multiple Sclerosis. We(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is not uniform, with a latitudinal gradient of prevalence present in most studies. Understanding the drivers of this gradient may allow a better understanding of the environmental factors involved in MS pathogenesis. METHOD The New Zealand national MS prevalence study (NZMSPS) is a cross-sectional study(More)
Cell-mediated immunity was studied by in vitro tests in seven patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogenic stimulation was reduced to a variable degree in all patients, indicating a general impairment of cell-mediated immune responsiveness, although mitogen-induced production of the(More)
Motor function subserved by cranial nerves V, VII, X, XI, and XII was assessed in 100 patients with hemiparesis due to a unilateral vascular lesion of the cerebral hemisphere. Several of the findings were not described clearly in many of the standard textbooks of neurology. Weakness of sternomastoid when present was always contralateral to the hemiparesis.(More)
The value of a brain biopsy in diagnosis and management of suspected herpes simplex encephalitis was studied in 29 patients (16 prospectively and 13 retrospectively). The biopsy showed herpes simplex encephalitis in eight, culture-negative encephalitis in 14, and was normal in three patients. It provided an alternative diagnosis in four patients, for two of(More)
We describe 5 patients who presented with an acute cauda equina syndrome, which we believe was due to infarction of the conus medullaris. In 3 patients, the onset was spontaneous, and in 2 patients it was secondary to temporary occlusion of the distal aorta during medical manipulation. Pain in the buttocks and posterior thighs was a prominent initial(More)
A retrospective analysis was made of the natural history and treatment of 44 patients with syringomyelia, followed for a median interval of 10 years after diagnosis. Twenty-four patients were treated surgically. Four of 12 patients who had a laminectomy with aspiration of the syrinx or syringostomy, and 7 of 15 patients who underwent decompression and(More)
New Zealand is a high risk region for multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to investigate demographic, clinical and temporal factors associated with disability status in the New Zealand National Multiple Sclerosis Prevalence Study (NZNMSPS) cohort. Data were obtained from the 2006 NZNMSPS with MS diagnosis based on the 2005 McDonald criteria.(More)