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A prospective study of serial magnetic resonance (MR) scans of the brain was carried out every 2 weeks for 4 to 6 months in 9 patients with mild, clinically definite, relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Six of the 9 patients developed a total of 12 asymptomatic new lesions in various parts of the brain. In none of the patients were the changes on(More)
Eighty-three previously healthy patients with chronic meningitis presenting to a general hospital were reviewed. The single most common cause was tuberculosis (40 per cent) with cryptococcosis (7 per cent), malignancy (8 per cent) and other definable causes much less frequent. In one-third of patients (34 per cent) no cause was found although most appeared(More)
We reviewed scales proposed over the past 35 years for the rating of neurologic impairment in MS. We focused on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) which has been recommended as the most useful scale for rating impairment by the International Federation of Multiple Sclerosis Societies in its Minimal Record of Disability for Multiple Sclerosis. We(More)
Cell-mediated immunity was studied by in vitro tests in seven patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogenic stimulation was reduced to a variable degree in all patients, indicating a general impairment of cell-mediated immune responsiveness, although mitogen-induced production of the(More)
BACKGROUND Validated measures of sustained improvements in neurological function have not been established for multiple sclerosis (MS) clinical studies. OBJECTIVE To evaluate sustained Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) change as a potential indicator of neurological improvement and as an outcome measure in MS clinical studies. METHODS Analyses(More)
A retrospective analysis was made of the natural history and treatment of 44 patients with syringomyelia, followed for a median interval of 10 years after diagnosis. Twenty-four patients were treated surgically. Four of 12 patients who had a laminectomy with aspiration of the syrinx or syringostomy, and 7 of 15 patients who underwent decompression and(More)
A silver stain for proteins in agarose gels which is at least 10 times as sensitive as Coomassie blue is described. The method is simple to use and is particularly useful for the study of protein bands in the gamma region on electrophoresis of fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid in which the protein concentration is low. It readily detects bands of IgG(More)
In the indirect assay for leukocyte migration inhibitory factor (LIF), lymphokine-rich supernatants were obtained by culture of stimulated lymphocytes and then tested for LIF activity in agarose plates using purified granulocytes as target cells. Studies on the standardization of the conditions under which LIF acts on the target cells are described, with(More)
The value of a brain biopsy in diagnosis and management of suspected herpes simplex encephalitis was studied in 29 patients (16 prospectively and 13 retrospectively). The biopsy showed herpes simplex encephalitis in eight, culture-negative encephalitis in 14, and was normal in three patients. It provided an alternative diagnosis in four patients, for two of(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is not uniform, with a latitudinal gradient of prevalence present in most studies. Understanding the drivers of this gradient may allow a better understanding of the environmental factors involved in MS pathogenesis. METHOD The New Zealand national MS prevalence study (NZMSPS) is a cross-sectional study(More)