Ernie Berndt

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Innovation in SMEs exhibits some peculiar features that most traditional indicators of innovation activity do not capture. Therefore, in this paper, we develop a structural model of innovation which incorporates information on innovation success from firm surveys along with the usual R&D expenditures and productivity measures. We then apply the model to(More)
In many sectors, pay is regulated to be equal across heterogeneous geographical labor markets. When the competitive outside wage is higher than the regulated wage, there are likely to be falls in quality. We exploit panel data from the population of English hospitals in which regulated pay for nurses is essentially flat across the country. Higher outside(More)
Drug prices have been a conspicuous political issue in much of recent history, but no more so than during health care reform debates in 1993 and 1994. This paper investigates possible effects of political activity on pharmaceutical prices, with a particular focus on the health care reform period. It evaluates the extent to which pharmaceutical companies(More)
Preschool, second-, and fifth-grade children watched films and heard stories which portrayed an actor who intentionally or accidentally injured another for either good or bad motives. After each film or story, children were interviewed to determine their understanding of the actor motives and the intentionality of his act and their moral judgements. The(More)
There are numerous sources of bias in medical care price indices that lead to non-trivial biases in overall price indices such as the GDP deflator and the Consumer Price Index. I begin by reviewing various uses of price indices and therefore why both biases and changes in those biases matter. I describe the theory underlying official price indices. I next(More)
The US health care industry is widely held view that it is failing in its ability to provide, safe, high quality care for its citizens. Escalating financial costs and regional variability in the provision of care have prompted a change in tactics for public health care administered by CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid) to a "Value-based purchasing"(More)